The people were for the most part prosperous and contented, but under Verres the island experienced more misery and desolation than during the time of the first Punic or the recent servile wars.
In the First Punic War, however, it was sacked by the Romans (261) and the Carthaginians (255), and finally in the Second Punic War by the Romans (210).
We hear of it even in the Punic Wars as a fortified post of Acragas (E.
There are signs of trade with Etruria as early as the 7th century B.C. The Carthaginians made it into an important grainproducing centre; and the Romans set foot in the island more than once during the First Punic War.
There were salt-works in Sardinia too as early as about 150 B.C., as is attested by an inscription assigned to this date in Latin, Greek and Punic, being a dedication by one Cleon salari(us) soc(iorum) s(ervus) (Corp. Inscr.
It is mentioned in 354 B.C. as a trading port, and became important as a naval harbour during the Punic Wars.
At the end of the First Punic War Lutatius Catulus erected a temple in her honour on the Campus Martius, subsequently restored by Augustus.
It remained in the hands of the Romans during both the Punic and the Social Wars, and was a fortress of importance to them.
Radermacher assigns the Asinaria to a date as early as 212 B.C. Of the extant plays the Cistellaria and the Stichus must be associated with the Miles as comparatively early works; for the former was clearly produced before (though not long before) the conclusion of the Second Punic War, see 1.201 seq.; and the Stichus is proved by its didascalia to have been produced in 200 B.C. The Pseudolus and the Truculentus fall within the last seven years of his life.
In 210 B.C. this important place, the headquarters and treasure city of the Punic army, was stormed and taken with great slaughter by P. Scipio.
Annus, year; hence annales, sc. libri, annual records), the name given to a class of writers on Roman history, the period of whose literary activity lasted from the time of the Second Punic War to that of Sulla.
Cassius Hemina (about 146), in the fourth book of his Annals, wrote on the Second Punic War.
CAELIUS ANTIPATER (about 120) limited himself to the Second Punic War.
His great work, entitled `PwµaiK?) apxawo)oyia (Roman Antiquities), embraced the history of Rome from the mythical period to the beginning of the first Punic War.
Hanoi is 1 For others of the name see Carthage; Hannibal; Punic Wars.
In 240, the year after the end of the first Punic War, he produced at the ludi Romani a translation of a Greek play (it is uncertain whether a comedy or tragedy or both), and this representation marks the beginning of Roman literature (Livy vii.
Hence he attacked Motya and Panormus and the rest of Punic Sicily.
He fell, however, in 407 in an attempt to enter Syracuse, and, as a result of the treaty of 405 B.C., Selinus became absolutely subject to Carthage, and remained so until its destruction at the close of the first Punic War, when its inhabitants were transferred to Lilybaeum.
At the outbreak of the Second Punic War (219 B.C.) it was a large and commercially prosperous town of native - not Greek - origin.
Having regard to the military importance of Arretium during the Punic wars, it is difficult to believe that no direct road existed to this point before 187 B.C.
The First Punic War having exhausted the treasury, the as was reduced to 2 OZ.
In the Second Punic War it was again reduced to half this weight, viz.
The first dictator is said to have been created in 501 B.C.; the last of the " administrative " dictators belongs to the year 216 B.C. It was an office that was incompatible both with the growing spirit of constitutionalism and with the greater security of the city; and the epoch of the Second Punic War was marked by experiments with the office, such as the election of Q.
Minucius with Fabius, which heralded its disuse (see Punic WARs).
Gaius Lutatius Catulus, Roman commander during the First Punic War, consul 242 B.C. He was sent with a fleet of zoo ships to Sicilian waters, and almost without opposition occupied the harbours of Lilybaeum and Drepanum.
(See Punic Wars: First, ad fin.).
Of her numerous temples at Rome, the most ancient was appropriately in the forum olitorium (vegetable market), built during the first Punic war, and since that time twice burnt down and restored.
It passed into Carthaginian hands by the treaty of 405 B.C., was won back by Dionysius in his first Punic war, but recovered by Carthage in 383.
The Poetelian law (326 B.C.) restricted the creditor's lien (by virtue of a nexum) to the goods of his debtor, and enacted that for the future no debtor should be put in chains; but we hear of debtors addicti to their creditors by the tribunals long after - even in the time of the Punic Wars.
In the Second Punic War it thrice bade defiance to Hannibal; but in the Social War it was betrayed into the hands of the Samnites, who kept possession till Marius, with whom they had sided, was defeated by Sulla, who in 80 B.C. subjected it with the rest of Samnium.
He served either in the Roman army or among the socii in the first Punic War, and thus must have reached manhood before 241.
It may have been during his exile, when withdrawn from his active career as a dramatist, that he composed or completed his poem on the first Punic war.
A strong spirit of partisanship is recognized in more than one of the fragments; and this spirit is thoroughly popular and adverse to the senatorial ascendancy which became more and more confirmed with the progress of the second Punic war.
The later part treated of the events of the first Punic war in the style of a metrical chronicle.
Often mentioned during the Punic Wars, it was captured by Agathocles in 310, and was the refuge of Hannibal and the remnants of his army after the battle of Zama in 202.
During the last Punic War it gave assistance to the Romans; after the fall of Carthage in 146 it received an accession of territory and the title of civitas libera (Appian, Punica, xciv.; C.I.L.
The Arabic invasion at the end of the 7th century destroyed the Byzantine towns, and the place became the haunt of pirates, protected by the Kasbah (citadel); it was built on the substructions of the Punic, Roman and Byzantine acropolis, and is used by the French for military purposes.
Daux, discovered the jetties and the moles of the commercial harbour, and the line of the military harbour (Cothon); both harbours, which were mainly artificial, are entirely silted up. There remains a fragment of the fortifications of the Punic town, which had a total length of 6410 metres, and remains of the substructions of the Byzantine acropolis, of the circus, the theatre, the water cisterns, and of other buildings, notably the interesting Byzantine basilica which is now used as an Arab cafe (Kahwat-el-Kubba).
In the ruins there have been found numerous columns of Punic inscriptions, Roman inscriptions and mosaic, among which is one representing Virgil seated, holding the Aeneid in his hand; another represents the Cretan labyrinth with Theseus and the Minotaur (Heron de Villefosse, Revue de l'Afrique francaise, v., December 1887, pp. 384 and 394; Comptes rendus de l'Acad.
We can recognize also the Punic and Pagan-Roman cemeteries (C. R.
The town had no Punic coins, but under the Roman domination there were coins from the time of the Republic. These are of bronze and bear the name of the city in abbreviations, Hadr or HadrVM accompanying the head of Neptune or the Sun.
He hastened at once to Arretium, the termination of the western high road to the north, to protect the passes of the Apennines, but was defeated and killed at the battle of the Trasimene lake (see Punic Wars) .
At the time of the Third Punic War the Africa of the Carthaginians was but a fragment of their ancient native empire.
The importance of the discoveries lies in the fact that the ditch which in later times divided the provinces of Africa vetus and Africa nova was at the time of the Third Punic War the boundary of Carthaginian territory (R.
P. Sextilius, pro praetor Africae, according to coins of Hadrumetum of the year 94 B.C. The towns which had fought on the side of the Romans during the Third Punic War were declared civitates liberae, and became exceedingly prosperous.
During the Roman period the ancient Carthaginians of Phoenician origin and the bastard population termed by ancient authors Libyo-Phoenicians, like the modern Maltese, invariably formed the predominant population of the towns on the littoral, and retained the Punic language until the 6th century of the Christian era.
These tax-farmers (see Publicani) were already in existence at the time of the Second Punic War; and their numbers and influence increased as the various provinces were added to the Roman dominions.
Thenceforward its position was dependent, and in the Second Punic War, after several vicissitudes, it was depopulated and plundered by Hannibal.
For a time it was the headquarters of Timoleon, and it was the first town taken by the Romans in the First Punic War (263 B.C.).
It was the first town to surrender to the Romans in the First Punic War, and was granted freedom and immunity from tithe.