It remained in the hands of the Romans during both the Punic and the Social Wars, and was a fortress of importance to them.
Radermacher assigns the Asinaria to a date as early as 212 B.C. Of the extant plays the Cistellaria and the Stichus must be associated with the Miles as comparatively early works; for the former was clearly produced before (though not long before) the conclusion of the Second Punic War, see 1.201 seq.; and the Stichus is proved by its didascalia to have been produced in 200 B.C. The Pseudolus and the Truculentus fall within the last seven years of his life.
It was the first town to surrender to the Romans in the First Punic War, and was granted freedom and immunity from tithe.
The people were for the most part prosperous and contented, but under Verres the island experienced more misery and desolation than during the time of the first Punic or the recent servile wars.
It is mentioned in 354 B.C. as a trading port, and became important as a naval harbour during the Punic Wars.
Annus, year; hence annales, sc. libri, annual records), the name given to a class of writers on Roman history, the period of whose literary activity lasted from the time of the Second Punic War to that of Sulla.
Cassius Hemina (about 146), in the fourth book of his Annals, wrote on the Second Punic War.
CAELIUS ANTIPATER (about 120) limited himself to the Second Punic War.
His great work, entitled `PwµaiK?) apxawo)oyia (Roman Antiquities), embraced the history of Rome from the mythical period to the beginning of the first Punic War.
Hanoi is 1 For others of the name see Carthage; Hannibal; Punic Wars.
Hence he attacked Motya and Panormus and the rest of Punic Sicily.
There were salt-works in Sardinia too as early as about 150 B.C., as is attested by an inscription assigned to this date in Latin, Greek and Punic, being a dedication by one Cleon salari(us) soc(iorum) s(ervus) (Corp. Inscr.
In 210 B.C. this important place, the headquarters and treasure city of the Punic army, was stormed and taken with great slaughter by P. Scipio.
In 240, the year after the end of the first Punic War, he produced at the ludi Romani a translation of a Greek play (it is uncertain whether a comedy or tragedy or both), and this representation marks the beginning of Roman literature (Livy vii.
In the First Punic War, however, it was sacked by the Romans (261) and the Carthaginians (255), and finally in the Second Punic War by the Romans (210).
There are signs of trade with Etruria as early as the 7th century B.C. The Carthaginians made it into an important grainproducing centre; and the Romans set foot in the island more than once during the First Punic War.
He fell, however, in 407 in an attempt to enter Syracuse, and, as a result of the treaty of 405 B.C., Selinus became absolutely subject to Carthage, and remained so until its destruction at the close of the first Punic War, when its inhabitants were transferred to Lilybaeum.
At the outbreak of the Second Punic War (219 B.C.) it was a large and commercially prosperous town of native - not Greek - origin.
Having regard to the military importance of Arretium during the Punic wars, it is difficult to believe that no direct road existed to this point before 187 B.C.
The First Punic War having exhausted the treasury, the as was reduced to 2 OZ.
In the Second Punic War it was again reduced to half this weight, viz.
The first dictator is said to have been created in 501 B.C.; the last of the " administrative " dictators belongs to the year 216 B.C. It was an office that was incompatible both with the growing spirit of constitutionalism and with the greater security of the city; and the epoch of the Second Punic War was marked by experiments with the office, such as the election of Q.
Gaius Lutatius Catulus, Roman commander during the First Punic War, consul 242 B.C. He was sent with a fleet of zoo ships to Sicilian waters, and almost without opposition occupied the harbours of Lilybaeum and Drepanum.
Of her numerous temples at Rome, the most ancient was appropriately in the forum olitorium (vegetable market), built during the first Punic war, and since that time twice burnt down and restored.
It passed into Carthaginian hands by the treaty of 405 B.C., was won back by Dionysius in his first Punic war, but recovered by Carthage in 383.
The Poetelian law (326 B.C.) restricted the creditor's lien (by virtue of a nexum) to the goods of his debtor, and enacted that for the future no debtor should be put in chains; but we hear of debtors addicti to their creditors by the tribunals long after - even in the time of the Punic Wars.
In the Second Punic War it thrice bade defiance to Hannibal; but in the Social War it was betrayed into the hands of the Samnites, who kept possession till Marius, with whom they had sided, was defeated by Sulla, who in 80 B.C. subjected it with the rest of Samnium.
He served either in the Roman army or among the socii in the first Punic War, and thus must have reached manhood before 241.
It may have been during his exile, when withdrawn from his active career as a dramatist, that he composed or completed his poem on the first Punic war.
A strong spirit of partisanship is recognized in more than one of the fragments; and this spirit is thoroughly popular and adverse to the senatorial ascendancy which became more and more confirmed with the progress of the second Punic war.
The later part treated of the events of the first Punic war in the style of a metrical chronicle.
Often mentioned during the Punic Wars, it was captured by Agathocles in 310, and was the refuge of Hannibal and the remnants of his army after the battle of Zama in 202.
During the last Punic War it gave assistance to the Romans; after the fall of Carthage in 146 it received an accession of territory and the title of civitas libera (Appian, Punica, xciv.; C.I.L.
The Arabic invasion at the end of the 7th century destroyed the Byzantine towns, and the place became the haunt of pirates, protected by the Kasbah (citadel); it was built on the substructions of the Punic, Roman and Byzantine acropolis, and is used by the French for military purposes.
Daux, discovered the jetties and the moles of the commercial harbour, and the line of the military harbour (Cothon); both harbours, which were mainly artificial, are entirely silted up. There remains a fragment of the fortifications of the Punic town, which had a total length of 6410 metres, and remains of the substructions of the Byzantine acropolis, of the circus, the theatre, the water cisterns, and of other buildings, notably the interesting Byzantine basilica which is now used as an Arab cafe (Kahwat-el-Kubba).
We can recognize also the Punic and Pagan-Roman cemeteries (C. R.
The town had no Punic coins, but under the Roman domination there were coins from the time of the Republic. These are of bronze and bear the name of the city in abbreviations, Hadr or HadrVM accompanying the head of Neptune or the Sun.
In Latin literature it was employed for the first time by the poet Ennius, who wrote in the interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (Ann.
At the time of the Third Punic War the Africa of the Carthaginians was but a fragment of their ancient native empire.
The importance of the discoveries lies in the fact that the ditch which in later times divided the provinces of Africa vetus and Africa nova was at the time of the Third Punic War the boundary of Carthaginian territory (R.
During the Roman period the ancient Carthaginians of Phoenician origin and the bastard population termed by ancient authors Libyo-Phoenicians, like the modern Maltese, invariably formed the predominant population of the towns on the littoral, and retained the Punic language until the 6th century of the Christian era.
Thenceforward its position was dependent, and in the Second Punic War, after several vicissitudes, it was depopulated and plundered by Hannibal.
For a time it was the headquarters of Timoleon, and it was the first town taken by the Romans in the First Punic War (263 B.C.).
Of his many works, the earliest, published in 1810, entitled Versuch 'fiber die maltesische Sprache, was a successful refutation of the widely current opinion that the modern Maltese was of Punic origin.
They are inscribed in an alphabet which has many points of similarity with the western Greek alphabets, and some with the Punic alphabet; but which seems to retain a few characters from an older script akin to those of Minoan Crete and Roman Libya.
The types show late Greek and perhaps also late Punic influence, but approximate later to Roman models.
The Punic settlers semitized the coast, but left the Berbers of the interior almost untouched.
The Romans entered into the heritage of the Carthaginians and the vassal kings of Numidia, and Punic speech and civilization The gave way to Latin, a change which from the time Province of of Caesar was helped on by Italian colonization; to "Africa."
The town must have become a part of the Carthaginian dominion in 405 B.C. It was seized by Pyrrhus in 278 B.C., and was ceded to Rome at the end of the First Punic War.
Of Syracuse and appealed for help to Rome, which was granted, and this led to a collision between Rome and Carthage, which ended in the First Punic War.
While hardly mentioned in connexion with the Punic or Civil Wars, Reate is described by Strabo as exhausted by these long contests.
During these constant wars the Greek cities had been steadily decaying; and in the second Punic war, when most of them seized the opportunity of revolting from Rome, their very existence was in some cases annihilated.
Soon after came the first Punic war, the principal scene of which was Sicily, where, from common hostility to the Carthaginian, Greek and Roman were brought into friendly relations, and the Roman armies must have become familiar with the spectacles and performances of the Greek theatre.
C. 200 B.C.), was not, like Livius, a Greek, but either a Roman citizen or, more probably, a Campanian who enjoyed the limited citizenship of Latin and who had served in the Roman army in the first Punic war.
Still more important service was rendered by him in his long Saturnian poem on the first Punic war, in which he not only told the story of contemporary events but gave shape to the legend of the settlement of Aeneas in Latium, - the theme ultimately adopted for the great national epic of Rome.
But the interval between the death of Ennius (169) and the beginning of Cicero's career, while one of progressive advance in the appreciation of literary form and style, was much less distinguished by original force than the time immediately before and after the end of the second Punic war.
Coelius Antipater, who wrote a narrative of the second Punic war about 120, and Sempronius Asellio, who wrote a history of his own times, have a better claim to be considered historians.
The reign of Domitian, although it silenced the more independent spirits of the time, Tacitus and Juvenal, witnessed more important contributions to Roman literature than any age since the Augustan, - among them the Institutes of Quintilian, the Punic War of Silius Italicus, the epics and the Silvae of Statius, and the Epigrams of Martial.
P. Sextilius, pro praetor Africae, according to coins of Hadrumetum of the year 94 B.C. The towns which had fought on the side of the Romans during the Third Punic War were declared civitates liberae, and became exceedingly prosperous.