P principles: the separation of the judicial and administrative functions, the independence of the judges and courts, the publicity of trials and oral procedure, the equality of all classes before the law.
These views found a new medium of publicity in 1904 when an independent native I Report by resident-commissioner H.
It was only after continued protests by the Newspaper Proprietors' Association that publicity was given to the gigantic achievements of the Ministry of Munitions, and the manufacturers and millions of workers associated with it.
The news supplied was meagre and inappropriate, and it did not take long for mischievous results to accrue, and the official mind was at first disposed to blame the Press for what was wrong in the " publicity " of the moment.
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The gradual way in which the several provinces were brought under the general tax system, and the equally gradual extension of Roman citizenship, account further for the irregularity and increased weight of the taxes; as the absence of publicity and the growth of autocracy explain the sense of oppression and the hopelessness of resistance so vividly indicated in the literature of the later Empire.
Publicity of rates was not generally required, and provisions against discrimination were rare.
The reform sought by the law is thorough publicity, and not only are details of receipts and expenditures to be published, but the names of contributors and the amount of their contributions.
All publicity was suppressed, and one whole district was disfranchised because it persisted in electing candidates who were disapproved of at court.
But there were other matters which might have been described had the authorities recognized the necessity for giving due publicity to what the nation was doing in the war.
Along with some others he started a Sunday school at Gloucester in 1780, and on his giving publicity to the enterprise in the columns of his journal the notice was copied into the London papers and awakened considerable attention.
In the former he claimed, for the protection of the rights of private persons in the administration of justice, the institution of a special court whose members should be irremovable, the right of oral defence, and publicity of trial.
It made provision for publicity of rates and for due notice of any change in rates; it forbade pooling of freight or earnings, and required annual reports from the carriers.
Its powers have been exercised with the greatest caution, yet with consistent firmness; and the publicity which has been given to the true and detailed causes of scores and scores of railway accidents by the admirable reports of the Board of Trade inspectors has been a powerful lever in improving the railway service.
Agitation in the imperial parliament stopped government action, but the publicity of the finding of the privy council warned all concerned against the risk of neglecting the common law of the empire whenever they were not prepared to follow the lex loci contractus.
The burning questions were the publicity of legal proceedings and the freedom of the press; and on these the government sustained its first crushing defeat in the lower chamber in 1842.
The despatch of Florence Nightingale with a staff of trained nurses, to superintend the administration of the military hospitals was the direct result of the publicity given to the details of the Crimean War by The Times, and it formed a new departure which riveted the eyes of the civilized world.
But the publicity given to a document scarcely known till then raised the utmost indignation against the Society.
In the state of New York the act which seeks to prevent corrupt practices relies in like manner on the efficacy of publicity, but it is less effective than the Massachusetts law in that it provides simply for the filing by the candidates themselves of sworn statements of their own expenses.
In 1566 he gave publicity to the Tridentine catechism; in 1568 he introduced the amended Roman breviary; everywhere he insisted on strict monastic discipline, and the compulsory residence of bishops within their sees.
Again, the most adverse critics would admit that much was done by the counter-Reformation, and that modern ecclesiastical discipline on this point is considerably superior to that of the middle ages; while, on the other hand, many authorities of undoubted orthodoxy are ready to confess that it is not free from serious risks even in these days of easy publicity and stringent civil discipline.'