This has been criticized both from the biological and from the psychological standpoint.
Butler is opposing the psychological hedonism 2 of Hobbes.
William of Conches, a pupil of Bernard's, devoting himself to psychological and physiological questions, was of less importance for the specific logico-metaphysical problem.
In the first of these books his nomenclature is unfortunate; his division of ethical theories into the " unpsychological," " idiopsychological," and the " hetero-psychological," is incapable of historical justification; his exposition of single ethical systems is, though always interesting and suggestive, often arbitrary and inadequate, being governed by dialectical exigencies rather than historical order and perspective.
The special characteristic of its theology is in the first part where it owes most to the teaching of Augustine, who in his striving after self-knowledge analysed the mystery of his own triune personality and illustrated it with psychological images, " I exist and I am conscious that I exist, and I love the existence and the consciousness; and all this independently of any external influence."
Cognition is therefore distinct from emotion and conation; it has no psychological connexion with feelings of pleasure and pain, nor does it tend as such to issue in action.
The first Pitaka contains the Vinaya - that is, Rules of the Order; the second the Suttas, giving the doctrine, and the third the Abhidhamma, analytical exercises in the psychological system on which the doctrine is based.
As an interpreter of the mystical side of Calvinism and of the psychological conditions which correspond with the doctrines of grace Erskine is unrivalled.
Colour and Constitution.-In this article a summary of the theories which have been promoted in order to connect the colour of organic compounds with their constitution will be given, and the reader is referred to the article Colour for the physical explanation of this property, and to Vision for the physiological and psychological bearings.
From the biological point of view the reference of certain modes of behaviour, termed instinctive, to faculties of mind for which "instinct" is the generic term is scarcely satisfactory; from the psychological point of view the phrase "without necessary knowledge of the relation between the means employed and the end attained" is ambiguous.
He was much influenced by Lotze, whose Outlines of Philosophy he translated (6 vols., 1877), and was one of the first to introduce (1879) the study of experi mental psychology into America, the Yale psychological laboratory being founded by him.
His admiration for Plato led him to write a commentary on the Timaeus; in another way it is shown by important modifications which he made in psychological doctrine.
From the outset English philosophy had a leaning to the psychological point of view, and Locke was only carrying on the tradition of his predecessors and particularly of Hobbes in definitely accepting it as the basis of his Essay.
He pushed the sensualistic principles of Condillac to their last consequences, being in full agreement with the materialistic views of Cabanis, though the attention of the latter was devoted more to the physiological, that of Tracy to the psychological or "ideological" side of man.
The subject is man, treated as Aristotle does, according to his TE¦os, and so Aquinas discusses all the ethical, psychological and theological questions which arise; but any theological discussion upon man must be mainly ethical, and so a great proportion of the first part, and almost the whole of the second, has to do with ethical questions.
It should be noticed that this (very common) psychological interpretation of "conception" differs from the metaphysical or general philosophical definition given above, in so far as it includes mental presentations in which the universal is not specifically distinguished from the particulars.
The essays in the fourth volume of his Dissertations - on endowments, on land, on labour, on metaphysical and psychological questions - were written for the Fortnightly Review at intervals after his short parliamentary career.
During the struggle that went on in his soul, he began to take note of his psychological state; and this was the first time that he exercised his reason on spiritual things; the experience thus painfully gained he found of great use afterwards in directing others.
Must always remain a production of great interest and considerable psychological value.
His treatise De anima, on which Haureau lays particular stress, is interesting as showing the greater scope now given to psychological discussions.
The immediate source of this version is the poem of Wolfram von Eschenbach, though the Grail, of course, is represented in the form of the Christian relic, not as the jewel talisman of the Parzival; but the psychological reading of the hero's character, the distinctive note of von Eschenbach's version, has been adapted by Wagner with marvellous skill, and his picture of the hero's mental and spiritual development, from extreme simplicity to the wisdom born of perfect charity, is most striking and impressive.
He was in the act of issuing his orders when a psychological wave swept through the fighting-line, and the men rose and rushed the village at the point of the bayonet.
Subsequent psycho-physical investigations have all been in the spirit of his work; and although he consistently advocated the introspective method in psychological investigation, he was among the first to appreciate the help that may be given to it by animal and social and infant psychology.
He may justly claim the merit of having guided the awakened psychological interest of British thinkers of the second half of the 19th century into fruitful channels.
Among the few critically satisfactory French books, Abbe Loisy's Le Quatrieme evangile (1903) stands pre-eminent for delicate psychological analysis and continuous sense of the book's closely knit unity; whilst Pere Th.
The Medico-Psychological Association of Great Britain and Ireland holds examinations and grants certificates in mental nursing; candidates must undergo three years' regular training, with instruction by lectures, &c., which may be obtained in a large number of public asylums by arrangement with the Association; one county asylum (Northampton) gives its own certificates after a three years' course.
The psychological theory of cognition takes for granted the dualism of the mind that knows and the object known; it takes no account of the metaphysical problem as to the possibility of a relation between the ego and the non-ego, but assumes that such a relation does exist.
Lord Rayleigh had an interest in abnormal psychological investigations, and became a member and vicepresident of the Society for Psychical Research.
In " Some Causes of Belief," he tries, standing outside the psychological process, to show how beliefs grow up under every kind of influence except that of genuine evidence.
But as a matter of fact no small part of the interest and value of investigations in this field of inquiry lies in the relationships which may thereby be established between biological and psychological interpretations.
From the psychological point of view all these different kinds of faith healing, as indeed all kinds of mind cure, including those of Christian Science and hypnotism, depend on suggestion.