1899), and here matured his apologetic method, resuming in 1898 the publication of longer articles, under the pseudonyms of Despres and Firmin in the Revue du clerge francais, and of Jacques Simon in the lay Revue d'histoire et de litterature religieuses.
Collections have appeared, however, by Waclaw Zaleski, who writes under the pseudonyms of Waclaw z Oleska, Wojcicki, Roger, Zegota Pauli, and especially Oskar Kolberg.
Several of the works of "Carmen Sylva" were written in collaboration with Mite Kremnitz, one of her maids of honour, who was born at Greifswald in 1857, and married Dr Kremnitz of Bucharest; these were published between 1881 and 1888, in some cases under the pseudonyms Dito et Idem, and includes the novel Aus zwei Welten (Leipzig, 1884), Anna Boleyn (Bonn, 1886), a tragedy, In der Irre (Bonn, 1888), a collection of short stories, &c. Edleen Vaughan, or Paths of Peril, a novel (London, 1894), and Sweet Hours, poems (London, 1904), were written in English.
In the department of belles-lettres he wrote a good deal under such pseudonyms as Christian Deutsch, Gottfried Flammberg and Sigmund Sturm.
2 It was the common practice to give pseudonyms to prisoners, and this is clearly such a case.