P. alba suffers much from the ravages of wood-eating larvae, and also from fungoid growths, especially where the branches have been removed by pruning or accident.
Every time a carpenter saws fresh timber with a saw recently put through wood attacked with dry-rot, he risks infecting it with the Fungus; and similarly in pruning, in propagating by cuttings, &c.
The pruning for fruit consists in shortening back the laterals which had been nailed in at the disbudding, or summer pruning, their length depending on their individual vigour and the luxuriance of the tree.
- Pruning a la finger.
The expenditure was arrived at in the manner previously described - and when the general budget came to be made up the severest pruning was found necessary, the original demands of the various ministries and departments having resulted in a deficit of upwards of £T 9, 000,000.
The blossoms of the peach are formed the autumn previous to their expansion, and this fact, together with the peculiarities of their form and position, requires to be borne in mind by the gardener in his pruning and training operations.
They may be produced, by taking care, during the summer pruning or disbudding, to preserve a number of the little shoots emitted by the yearly wood, only pinching off the minute succulent points.
The pruning and training of the trees in the peach house do not differ materially from the methods practised out of doors.
In religion he protested stoutly, and no doubt sincerely, that his own attitude was not purely negative; but here also he seems to have failed altogether to distinguish between pruning and cutting down.
The practice of pruning or "stopping" is, consciously or unconsciously, regulated by the mode of growth.
There are three principal systems of pruning vines, termed the long-rod, the short-rod and the spur systems, and good crops have been obtained by each of them.
The principle of this mode of pruning is to train in at considerable length, according to their strength, shoots of the last year's growth for producing shoots to bear fruit in the present; these rods are afterwards cut away and replaced by young shoots trained up during the preceding summer; and these are in their turn cut out in the following autumn after bearing, and replaced by shoots of that summer's growth.
The trees form their heads naturally, and therefore little pruning is required, it being merely necessary to cut off straggling growths, and to prevent the branches from interlacing.
To the older and more luxurious lyrics, as reprinted in 1842, Tennyson did not spare the curbing and pruning hand, and in some cases went too far in restraining the wanton spirit of beauty in its youthful impulse.
Apart, or even more, according to the growth intended before thinning, which should be begun as soon as the boughs begin to overspread much; little or no pruning is needed beyond the careful removal of dead branches.
In apparent disregard of the general rule just enunciated is the practice of root-pruning fruit trees, when, from the formation of wood being more active than that of fruit, they bear badly.
The recognition of the various forms of buds and their modes of disposition in different plants is a matter of the first consequence in the operations of pruning and training.
Pruning, or the removal of superfluous growths, is practised in order to equalize the development of the different parts of trees, or to promote it in particular directions so as to secure a certain form, and, by checking undue luxuriance, to promote enhanced fertility.
In the rose-bush, for instance, in which, as we have seen, the flower-buds are formed on the new wood of the year, pruning causes the old wood to " break," i.e.
The manner and the time in which pruning should be accomplished, and its extent, vary with the plant, the objects of the operation, i.e.
Winter pruning is effected when the tree is comparatively at rest, and is therefore less liable to " bleeding " or outpouring of sap. Summer pruning or pinching off the tips of such of the younger shoots as are not required for the extension of the tree, when not carried to too great an extent, is preferable to the coarser more reckless style of pruning.
The effects of badly-executed pruning, or rather hacking, are most noticeable in the case of forest trees, the mutilation of which often results in rotting, canker and other diseases.
Judicious and timely thinning so as to allow the trees room to grow, and to give them sufficiency of light and air, will generally obviate the need of the pruning-saw, except to a relatively small extent.
The refinements of training, as of pruning, may, however, be carried too far; and not unfrequently the symmetrically trained trees of the French excite admiration in every respect save fertility.
On the same principle the use of small pots to confine the roots, root-pruning and lifting the roots, and exposing them to the sun, as is done in the case of the vine in some countries, are resorted to.
Pruning is a very important operation in the fruit garden, its object being twofold - (i) to give form to the tree, and (2) to induce the free production of flower buds as the precursors of a plentiful crop of fruit.
If these are three or four in number, and fairly balanced as to strength and position, little pruning will be required.
The tips of unripened wood should be cut back about one-third their length at an outwardly placed bud, and the chief pruning thereafter required will be to cut away inwardly directed shoots which cross or crowd each other and tend to confuse the centre of the tree.
- Pruning for Fanshaped Tree.
This upper shoot is at the next winter pruning to be cut down to within about a foot of the point whence it sprung, and its buds rubbed off except the upper one for a leader, and one on each side just below it to furnish another pair of side shoots; these being trained in position, the tree would appear as in fig.
- Pruning for Horizontally trained Tree.
- Prune apricots, peaches, nectarines and plums, before the buds are much swelled; finish pruning apples, pears, cherries, gooseberries, currants and raspberries, before the end of the month; also the dressing of vines.
Finish the pruning of all deciduous trees and hedges as soon as possible.
If vines have been neglected to be pruned, rub off the buds that are not wanted; this is safer than pruning now.
Tomatoes will now be fruiting freely; thin out judiciously, avoiding excessive pruning at one time.
The half-fan is a combination of the two forms, but as regards pruning does not materially differ from the horizontal, as two opposite side branches are produced in succession upwards till the space is filled, only they are not taken out so abruptly, but are allowed to rise at an acute angle and then to curve into the horizontal line.
In the pear and apple the fruit is borne principally on spurs, and hence what is known as spur-pruning has to be adopted, the young shoots being all cut back nearly to their base, so as to cause fruit buds to evolve from the remaining eyes or buds.
This is called summer pruning, and is an important operation requiring knowledge on the part of the gardener to perform properly.
Summer Pruning should be performed while the shoots are yet young and succulent, so that they may in most cases be nipped off with the thumb-nail.
- Summer Pruning for Spurs.
But summer pruning has been much extended since the introduction of restricted growth and the use of dwarfing stocks.
Orchard-house trees, and also pyramidal and bush trees of apples, pears and plums, are mainly fashioned by summer pruning; in fact, the less the knife is used upon them, except in the necessary cutting of the roots in potted trees, the better.