The Angevin king was thereupon set free, leaving three of his sons and sixty Provencal nobles as hostages, promising to pay 30,000 marks and to return a prisoner if the conditions were not fulfilled within three years.
The museum, occupying an old Gothic church, is particularly rich in Roman remains and in early Christian sarcophagi; there is also a museum of Provencal curiosities.
The family of Riquet, or Riqueti, originally of the little town of Digne, won wealth as merchants at Marseilles, and in 1570 Jean Riqueti bought the château and seigniory of Mirabeau, which had belonged to the great Provencal family of Barras.
Raymund of Agiles, a Provencal clerk and a follower of Raymund of Toulouse, writes his Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Jerusalem from the Provencal point of view.
Servois (Paris, 1860) in Anciens poetes de la France, and Provencal text, ed I.
Their ministers were called barba, a Provencal word meaning guide.
In 1836 he was elected a member of the Academy of Inscriptions, and in 1837 he published (with an introduction the conclusions of which would not now all be endorsed) a translation of a Provencal poem on the Albigensian war.
The decadence of Latin early in the 7th century is exemplified by the fantastic grammarian Virgilius Maro, who also illustrates the transition from Latin to Provencal, and from quantitive to accentual forms of verse.
Provencal Language >>
In character and interests he was rather Provencal than Spanish, a favourer of the troubadours, no enemy of the Albigensian heretics, and himself a poet in the southern French dialect.
Of Aragon (1285-1291), the insignificant son of the notable Peter III., succeeded to the Spanish and Provencal possessions of his father, but his short reign did not give him time even to marry.
Among the enterprising and shrewd Catalans, who look upon their rulers as reactionary, and reserve all their sympathies for the Provencal neighbours whom they so nearly resemble in race, language and temperament, French influence and republican ideals spread rapidly; taking the form partly of powerful labour and socialist organizations, partly of less reputable bodies, revolutionary and even anarchist.
This article relates to the Western Cathars, as they appear (1) in the Cathar Ritual written in Provencal and preserved in a 13th -century MS. in Lyons, published by Cledat, Paris, 1888; (2) in Bernard Gui's Practica inquisitionis haereticae pravitatis, edited by Canon C. Douais, Paris, 1886; and (3) in the proces verbal of the inquisitors' reports.
Meanwhile the Provencal poets had developed their modern language with incomparable richness and dexterity, creating forms of verse and modes of emotional expression which determined the latest medieval phase of literature in Europe.
Petrarch's lyrics continue the Provencal tradition as it had been reformed in Tuscany, with a subtler and more modern analysis of emotion, a purer and more chastened style, than his masters could boast.
To summarize, the first literary activity of Portugal was derived from Provence, and Provencal taste ruled for more than a century; the poets of the 15th century imitated the Castilians, and the 16th saw the triumph of Italian or classical influence.
- Though no literary documents belonging to the first century of Portuguese history have survived, there is, evidence that an indigenous popular poetry both Poetry sacred and profane existed, and while Provencal influences moulded the manifestations of poetical talent for nearly two hundred years, they did not originate them.
In other respects they are inferior to their Provencal masters.
Speaking generally, the cancioneiros form monotonous reading owing to their poverty of ideas and conventionality of metrical forms and expression, but here and there men of talent who were poets by profession and better acquainted with Provencal literature endeavoured to lend their work variety by the use of difficult processes like the lexaprem and by introducing new forms like the pastorela and the descort.
The town of Hyeres seems to have been founded in the 10th century, as a place of defence against pirates, and takes its name from the aires (hierbo in the Provencal dialect), or threshingfloors for corn, which then occupied its site.
Philip was a lover of poetry, surrounded himself with Provençal poets and even wrote in Provencal himself, but he was also one of the most hard-working kings of the house of Capet.
But these pastures have been much damaged by the Provencal shepherds to whom they are let out, while the forests have been very much thinned (though extensive reafforestments are now being carried out) so that the soil is very dry and made drier by exposure to the southern sun.
The olive thrives well at Rudbar and Manjil in the Sefid RIM valley and the oil extracted from it by a Provencal for some years until 1896, when he was murdered, was of very good quality and found a ready market at Baku.
This implacable war, which threw the whole of the nobility of the north of France against that of the south, and destroyed the brilliant Provencal civilization, ended, politically, in the treaty of Paris (1229), by which the king of France dispossessed the house of Toulouse of the greater part of its fiefs, and that of Beziers of the whole of its fiefs.
The Provencal (c. 1250), published in Bartsch's Chrestomathie provenrale, omits the "morals," but is remarkable for its peculiarities of form.