In the past many conflicting estimates were made of the character and achievements of the pope during whose pontificate Protestantism first took form.
To Protestantism, faith is personal trust.
Catholicism increasingly took for granted that a man imperilled his soul by thinking for himself; Protestantism replied that he could certainly lose it, if he left his thinking to another.
Protestantism was clearly becoming inextricably associated with politics of a very intricate sort.
In modern Protestantism, on the other hand, the idea of an infallible authority whether in the Church or the Bible has tended to disappear, religious truths being conceived as valuable only as they are apprehended and made real to the individual mind and soul by the grace of God, not by reason of any submission to an external authority.
Among other subjects, he wrote on the School of Hierotheus, on Romish falsifications of the Greek Fathers, on Leo XIII., on Liberal Ultramontanism, on the Papal Teaching in regard to Morals, on Vincentius of Lerins and he carried on a controversy with Professor Willibald Beyschlag, of the German Evangelical Church, on the respective merits of Protestantism and Old Catholicism regarded as a basis for teaching the Christian faith.
He now began to be regarded as the chief upholder of Protestantism in the ministry; he lost favour with Charles, and on Sunday, the 9th of September 1673, was dismissed from the chancellorship. Among the reasons for this dismissal is probably the fact that he opposed grants to the king's mistresses.
The inspiring principle had been the defence and support of Protestantism, the question with Cromwell being "whether the Christian world should be all popery."
The procession of the Host on Corpus Christi day became, as it were, a public demonstration of Catholic orthodoxy against Protestantism and later against religious Liberalism.
Though a strong Tory and supporter of the hereditary principle, James's attacks on Protestantism soon drove him into opposition.
On the other hand, Western Protestantism has also made great headway, notably the Stundists, whose rationalisticProtestant teaching has gained a firm foothold especially in Little Russia, where the Raskol never penetrated.
His Protestantism was robust enough; he did not mind recommending that a priest "might be put to some torment" (Hatfield MSS.
ANTOINE PERRENOT GRANVELLA, CARDINAL DE (1517-1586), one of the ablest and most influential of the princes of the church during the great political and ecclesiastical movements which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe, was born on the 20th of August 1517 at Besancon, where his father, Nicolas Perrenot de Granvella (1484-1550), who afterwards became chancellor of the empire under Charles V., was practising as a lawyer.
Although, however, he adds that at this point he suspended his religious inquiries, " acquiescing with implicit belief in the tenets and mysteries which are adopted by the general consent of Catholics and Protestants," his readers will probably do him no great injustice if they assume that even then it was rather to the negations than to the affirmations of Protestantism that he most heartily assented.
He treated the question at issue as one of pure logic, and disliking the Reformers, the right of private judgment which Protestants claimed, and the somewhat prosaic uniformity of the English Church, he flung himself into a general campaign against Protestantism in general and the Anglican form of it in particular.
In 1555 Rawlins White, a fisherman, was burnt at Cardiff for his Protestantism, and in 1679 two Catholic priests were executed for recusancy.
16, 1645), the last political triumph of Hungarian Protestantism, whereby the emperor was forced to confirm once more the oft-broken articles of the peace of Vienna, 1 The counties of Szatmar, Ugocsa and Bereg and the fortress of Tokaj were formally ceded to him.
Full of energy, Amyraut very speedily gave to French Protestantism a new force.
It may be added that after the Reformation Arianism was revived in Socinianism, and Pelagianism in Arminianism; but the conception of heresy in Protestantism demands subsequent notice.
Protestantism generally, it is to be observed, quite approved the execution of the heretic.
Here Gfrdrer had manifested opinions unfavourable to Protestantism, which, however, were not openly avowed until fully developed in his church history (Allgemeine Kirchengeschichte bis Beginn des 14ten Jahrhunderts, Stuttgart, 1841-1846).
On grounds of Scripture and reason he at length declared for Protestantism, and wrote in 1634, but did not publish, a confutation of the motives which had led him over to Rome.
It was not only that she lost many thousands of her best citizens, but this blow against Protestantism deprived her of those Protestant alliances in Europe which had been in the past her great diplomatic support.
The terms " Reformation " and " Protestantism " are inherited by the modern historian; they are not of his devising, and come to him laden with reminiscences of all the exalted enthusiasms and bitter antipathies engendered by a period of fervid religious dissension.
Yet the discussions he aroused, the attacks he made upon the institutions of the medieval Church, and especially the position he assigned to the Scriptures as the exclusive source of revealed truth, serve to make the development of Protestantism under Henry VIII.
Henry, however, stoutly refused to go further in the direction of German Protestantism, even with the prospect of forwarding the proposed union between him and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League.
When Francis died little had been done, in spite of the government's cruelty, to check Protestantism, while a potent organ of evangelical propaganda had been developing just beyond the confines of France in the town of Geneva.
Geneva, however, with its most distinguished of Protestant theologians, became a school of Protestantism, which sent its trained men into the Netherlands, England and Scotland, and especially across the border into France.
It is much less certain that the disciplinary reforms which the council, following the example of its predecessors, re-enacted, owed anything to Protestantism, unless indeed the council would have shown itself less intolerant in respect to such innovations as the use of the vernacular in the services had this not smacked of evangelicalism.
What Protestantism saw in the distant past, Trent naturally recognized in the present.
7 Early Protestantism lived too much in the thought of justification to mark out the boundaries of creed with this scholastic precision.
Grundsdtzen, 1863-1872) that Protestantism ought not to speak of dogmas at all, except as things of its imperfect past.
The polemical conception which has done much to perpetuate this confusion is that of the historical continuity of Protestantism from the earliest times.
Gradually the separation from the church became more complete: the sacraments were regarded as merely symbolical; the priests became helpers of the faithful; ceremonies disappeared; and a new religious society arose equally unlike the medieval church and the Protestantism of the 16th century.
He got an answer couched in somewhat ironical terms to the effect that Protestantism owed its existence in a measure to the house of Saxony, from which the prince descended, seeing that this house and that of the landgrave of Hesse had stood quite alone against Europe in upholding Luther and his cause.
On the 25th of March he made a striking speech upon the state of the nation, especially upon the dangers to Protestantism and the misgovernment of Scotland and Ireland.
He has been designated the "Restorer of Protestantism in France," and was the organizer of the "Church of the Desert."
Court formed the design of writing a history of Protestantism, and made large collections for the purpose, which have been preserved in the Public Library of Geneva; but this he did not live to carry out.
The work which the young Frenchman did for his countrymen was immense.3 The year 1555 may be taken as the date when French Protestantism began to be organized.
But these two sections of Protestantism, in their common exile and in presence of the preponderating Roman Catholicism of the country, seemed at first inclined to draw closer together than had been thought possible in Great Britain.
But Cromwell's dream of putting himself at the head of European Protestantism never even approached realization.
In 1677, to secure Protestantism in case of a Roman Catholic succession, he introduced a bill by which ecclesiastical patronage and the care of the royal children were entrusted to the bishops; but this measure, like the other, was thrown out.
The progress of the archbishop's opinion towards that middle Protestantism, if it may be so called, which he did so much to impress on the formularies of the Church of England, was gradual, as a brief enumeration of the successive steps in that progress will show.
Ostentatious avoidance of a fish-diet became, indeed, one of the outward symbols of militant Protestantism among the Puritans.
In 1580 Protestantism got the upper hand; the ban of the empire followed and was executed by Ernest of Bavaria, archbishop-elector of Cologne in 1598.
The Church of Rome prefers medieval or modern statements of its position; Protestantism can use only modern statements.
According to earlier views - repeatedly revived in Protestantism - revelation is just philosophy over again.
Or it is the doctrine of unfallen man's " natural state " - a doctrine intensified in Protestantism - separating itself from the theologians' grave doctrine of sin.
He was made a major-general in 1649, and but for his Protestantism would have succeeded Owen Roe as chief of the O'Neills.
Protestantism was professed by a large number of the inhabitants; and in many respects their characteristics identified them rather with the race to the east than that to the west of the Rhine.
His Protestantism advanced with the times, and he received higher promotion under Northumberland than under the moderate Somerset.
Reformation; and most of them were Jesuits, the order that set out to be nothing Protestantism was, and everything that Protestantism was not.
The extirpation of Protestantism was a deliberate prearranged programme, and as Protestantism was by this time identical with Magyarism 3 the extirpation of the one was tantamount to the extirpation of the other.
Returning to Normandy he was presented to the king by Jacques of Matignon; after he had abjured Protestantism, being again presented by Philip Desportes, abbot of Tiron, as a young man without equal for knowledge and talent, he was appointed reader to the king.
Protestantism took over the superstition from.
The conflict assumed the character of a struggle between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism, in which Philip appeared as the champion of the Church.
Protestantism was then vigorously stamped out.
Protestantism; on the contrary, he yearned to beat these by their own weapons, chiefly by showing them that Catholics could interpret the Bible in a manner quite as mystical and pietistic as theirs.
In a great sermon on the 10th of April (Easter week) 1588, he stoutly vindicated the Protestantism of the Church of England against the Romanists, and, oddly enough, adduced "Mr Calvin" as a new writer, with lavish praise and affection.
The result of the discussion was that Bern was won over to the side of the reformer, who apprehended the whole struggle of Protestantism as turning directly on the political decisions of the various units of the Confederation.
The medieval church set forth Christ as present in the orderly community of the faithful; Protestantism aimed at setting the individual in immediate communion with Christ, without the mechanical intervention of the officers of the community; the 1 D'Argentre, Collectio judiciorum de novis erroribus, i.