It will be seen that nearly all the colonies and protectorates lie within the tropics.
The colonial minister is assisted by a number of organizations of which the most important is the superior council of the colonies (created by decree in 1883), an advisory body which inclUdes the senators and deputies elected by the colonies, and delegates elected by the universal suffrage of all citizens in the colonies and protectorates which do not return members to parliament.
The oversight of all the colonies and protectorates save Algeria and Tunisia is confided to a minister of the colonies (law of March 20, 1894)1 whose powers correspond to those exercised in France by the minister of the interior.
The colonies are divisible into two classes, (I) those possessing considerable powers of local self-government, (2) those in which the local government is autocratic. To this second class may be added the protectorates (and some colonies) where the native form of government is maintained under the supervision of French officials.
In Indo-China, West Africa, French Congo and Madagascar, the colonies and protectorates are grouped under governors-general, and to these high officials extensive powers have been granted by presidential decree.
There is a superior council for the whole of Indo-China on which the natives and the European commercial community are represented, while in Cochin-China a privy council, and in the protectorates a council of the protectorate, assists in the work of administration.
In the other colonies and protectorates more than half the trade is with foreign countries.
In these adjoining protectorates wild cottons occur, and suitable conditions exist in certain localities.
For the various protectorates, (I) British - the annual reports issued by the Colonial Office, London; Official History of the Operations in Somaliland, 1901-1904 (2 vols., London, 1907); War Office maps on the scale of I :1,000,000, also sketch map 1:3,000,000 (1907).
With the establishment of a British protectorate at Zanzibar, and of British and German protectorates on the mainland of East Africa and in the region of the head-waters of the Nile, the East African slave trade received its death-blow.
Though the history of the Congo Free State affords a painful contrast to the philanthropic professions of its founder, in other parts of the continent the establishment of protectorates by Great Britain, France and Germany was followed by strenuous, and largely successful, efforts to put down slave raiding.
For this reason, amongst others, no census had been taken up to 1906 of Northern Rhodesia, the British possessions and protectorates of eastern Africa, or, again, of Nigeria and the protectorates attached to the West African colonies of Gambia, Sierra Leone and Lagos.
Jellinek has suggested this classification (Die Lehre von den Staatenverbindungen, p. 58): (a) Unorganized associations, including - (1) treaties; (2) occupation of the territory of one state and administration by another, as in Bosnia and Cyprus; (3) alliances; (4) protectorates, guarantees, perpetual neutrality; (5) Der Staatenstaat, the feudal state, of which Jellinek gives the Turkish Empire and the old Holy Roman Empire as examples.
Protectorates and Suzerainties.
Of the imports $57,880,889 worth came from the United Kingdom or from British possessions or protectorates; $ 2 3,937,737 worth came from foreign countries; and $3,906,241 from the Dindings, Malacca and Singapore.
Of the exports, $23,122,947 went to the United Kingdom, or to British possessions or protectorates; $37,671,033 went to foreign countries; and $2,754,238 went to the Dindings, Malacca or Singapore.
Reorganized in 1907 the colonial office consists of three chief departments: (I) the Dominions Department, dealing with the affairs of the self-governing over-sea dominions of the British crown, and of certain other possessions geographically connected with those dominions; (2) the Colonial Department, dealing with the affairs of crown colonies and protectorates; (3) the General Department, dealing with legal, financial and other general business.
Within three or four years everything south of the Humber and east of the Severn had been either directly annexed or entrusted, as protectorates, to native client-princes.
The numbers are limited to 475, of whom 250 belong to the home and 225 to the civil services of the colonies and protectorates (Royal Warrant, June 1909).
The league's relation to outlying dependencies is obscure; many of these were probably mere protectorates or "allied states" and secured no representation.
In accordance with this policy, the territories were not actually incorporated in the empire (there would also hav& been constitutional difficulties in doing that), and they were officially known as Protectorates (Schulzgebiete), a word which thus acquired a new signification.
Two groups of islands in the Bay of Bengal, the Andamans and the Nicobars; one group in the Arabian Sea, the Laccadives; and the outlying station of Aden at the mouth of the Red Sea, with Perim, and protectorates over the island of Sokotra, along the southern coast of Arabia and in the Persian Gulf, are all politically included within the Indian empire; while on the coast of the peninsula itself, Portuguese and French settlements break at intervals the continuous line of British territory.
The boundaries of the territories, protectorates and spheres of influence in Africa of Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Belgium and Portugal have been readjusted by a series of treaties, especially between the years 1885 and 1894.
The native protectorates, Basutoland, Swaziland and Bechuanaland had been left by the South Africa Act under direct imperial control.
Diverse nature - protectorates such as Hormuz and Ternate in the Moluccas, colonies such as Goa and Madeira, captaincies under military rule such as Malacca, tributary states Rich as Kilwa, fortified factories as at Colombo and Cochin.
333 n.) thus defines the term: " La suzerainete est la souverainete limitee exercee par le pouvoir supreme d'un etat sur un gouvernment mi-souverain," a definition applicable to protectorates, with which it is often confounded.
Their position differs from that of the foregoing varieties of states (protectorates, &c.), in that a presumption exists against the possession by them of any given international capacity (International Law, 4th ed., p. 31).
" The one common element in Protectorates is the prohibition of all foreign relations except those permitted by the protecting state.
Certain protectorates originate in treaties; others have been imposed by force.
Strictly speaking, a protectorate cannot exist over a domain uninhabited or ruled by no organized state; in such cases the elements of the true protectorates are wanting.
Among the chief British protectorates are: The African groups, consisting of the western group - Gambia;; Sierra Leone; Ashanti (northern territory); Northern Nigeria; Southern Nigeria (with which is amalgamated Lagos).
There is a group of protectorates near Aden, including the island of Sokotra.
Jurisdiction over these protectorates is, generally speaking, exercised under orders in council made under the Protec- Foreign Jurisdiction Act 1890 (Burge's Colonial and Foreign, Law, 2nd ed., p. 320).
There is also the Malay group, consisting of the Malay States in the Borneo peninsula and in Borneo, the protectorates of North Borneo, Brunei and Sarawak.
Protectorates also exist in the Western Pacific group of islands (including the Friendly Islands, the Ellice and Gilbert group, and the British Solomon Islands).
There are also dependencies, or protectorates, attached to India, Baluchistan, Sikkim and Andaman Islands.
France possesses several protectorates, of which the chief are Tunis, Annam and Tongking.
Such change has taken place as to Tahiti and Madagascar, and such in effect is the position of the Indo-China protectorates (Devaulx, Les Protectorats de la France; Report by Mr Lister, Parl.
The chief German protectorates are South-west Africa, Togoland and Cameroon, German East Africa, Kaiser Wilhelm Land, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, and Kiaochow - under lease from China - (Zeitschrift fitir Kolonialrecht, 1907, p. 311).
Russia has the protectorates of Khiva and Bokhara; and China exercises or claims rights as protector of certain dependencies.
There are two principal classes of protectorates; the first being those exercised generally by treaty over civilized countries.
The second class of protectorates consists of those exercised by one civilized state over an uncivilized people, sometimes called a " Colonial Protectorate " or " pseudo-protectorate," and usually the preparatory step to annexation.
The second class may be subdivided into two groups: (a) protectorates exercised over countries with organized governments and under recognized sovereigns, such as the Malay States; and (b) those exercised over countries possessing no stable or definite governments and rulers.
Some treaties establishing protectorates provide for direct interference with internal affairs; for example, the treaty of 1847 creating a French protectorate over Tahiti, and that of 1883 as to Tunis.
In the case of protectorates over uncivilized countries it is usual to stipulate against alienation of territory without consent of the Oberstaat.
The legal position of protectorates is still somewhat undetermined; there are an old view and also a new view of their nature.
The distinct tendency, especially as to protectorates over uncivilized countries, is to treat, for purposes of international law, the territory of a protectorate as if it belonged to the protecting state.
If France, for example, permitted in Tunis or other protectorates operations of an unfriendly character to any power, the injured power would no doubt look to France for redress.
This view would probably be strongly pressed in the case of protectorates over countries having no well-defined or stable government.
A similar process is observable in the German protectorates, which are treated for some purposes as " inland," and not foreign territory (Der koloniale Inlandsand Auslands-begrif, Zeitschrift filr Kolonialrecht, 1907, p. 3 11).
The fact is that in the case of protectorates over uncivilized or semi-civilized countries a development is inevitable: control quickly hardens into conquest, and international law more and more takes note of this fact.
When he was twice placed in power, during the two protectorates which followed YorIc~ Henrys two long fits of insanity in 1454 and 1455-1456, he carefully avoided any oppression of his enemies, though he naturally took care to put his own friends in office.