He voted for the tariff of 1824, then gradually abandoned the protectionist position.
The Riksdag of 1882 the commercial treaty with France was renewed, but since 1885 the protectionist party was prepared to begin the combat, and a duty on corn, which had been proposed in the Riksdag of the same year, was rejected by only a slight majority.
During the Riksdag of the same year, however, the premier, Themptauder, emphatically declared himself against the protectionist party, and while the parties in the Second Chamber were equal in number, the proposed tax on corn was rejected in the First Chamber.
At last Baron Gillis Bildt, who, while Swedish ambassador in Berlin, had witnessed the introduction by Prince Bismarck of the agrarian protectionist system in Germany, accepted the premiership, and it was under his auspices that the two chambers imposed a series of duties on necessaries of life.
The protectionist system gained in favour on the expiry of the commercial treaty with France in 1892, as it could now be extended to articles of industry.
The elections of 1890, when the metropolis returned free traders and Liberals to the Second Chamber, certainly effected a change in the latter, as the representatives of the towns and the old " Landtmanna " party joined issue and established a free-trade majority in the chamber, but in the combined meetings of the two chambers the compact protectionist majority in the First Chamber turned the scale.
The then Premier, Mr Reid, was rather lukewarm, as he considered that the free-trade policy of New South Wales would be overridden by its protectionist neighbours and its metropolitan position Attitude interfered with.
A country which is so devoted to free trade that it not only practises free trade itself but endeavours to convert others by nullifying their protectionist measures as far as it can, even with immediate loss to itself, departs from the guidance of selfinterest so far; hut its political action may be justifiable in the long run by other considerations.
Further, a system of granting monopolies and other privileges had again sprung up. Many of these grants embodied some scheme which was intended to serve the interests of the public, and many actions which appear startling to us were covered by the extreme protectionist theories then in vogue.
These speeches appeal more to admiration than to sympathy, even where the limitations of Disraeli's protectionist beliefs are understood and where his perception of the later consequences of free trade is most cordially acknowledged.
In doing this he made it sufficiently clear that there could be no sudden return to Protectionist principles.
It was not long, however, before the party itself became divided on the fiscal question; and a Protectionist government coming into power, about half the Labour members gave it consistent support and enabled it to maintain office for about three years, the party as a political unit being thus destroyed.
E The external taxation is not only strongly protectionist, but i applied to goods which cannot be made in Italy; hardly anything comes in duty free, even such articles as second-hand furniture paying duty, unless within six months of the date at which the importer has declared domicile in Italy.
The probability of the conclusion of a new Franco-Italian treaty was small, both on account of the protectionist spirit of France and of French resentment at the renewal of the triple alliance, but even such slight probability vanished after a visit paid to Bismarck by Crispi (October 1887) within three months of his appointment to the premiership. Crispi entertained no a priori animosity towards France, but was strongly convinced that Italy must emancipate herself from the position of political dependence on her powerful neighbor which had vitiated the foreign policy of the Left.
In September 1888 he was elected a member of the first chamber of the Riksdag, where he attached himself to the conservative protectionist party, over which, from the first, he exercised great authority.
The scientific and mechanical improvements of the first half of the century were widely adopted, while the prices of the protectionist period showed little decline.
By his casting vote at a critical period during the debate in the Senate on the tariff bill of 1846, he irretrievably lost his influence with the protectionist element of his native state, to whom he had given assurances of his support of the Tyler tariff of 1842.
Under the bounty system, by which the protectionist countries of Europe stimulated the beet sugar industry by bounties on exports, the production of sugar in bounty-paying countries was encouraged and pushed far beyond the limits it could have reached without state aid.
In 1879 he opposed in the Reichstag the new protectionist tariff, and on the failure of his efforts retired definitely from public life.
Taxation, direct and indirect, had to be further increased, and as a means of gaining support for this in 1888 Sir Harry Atkinson, who was responsible for the budget, gave the customs tariff a distinctly protectionist complexion.
As regards internal politics, it may be remarked that the queen and Prince Albert were much relieved when Peel, who had come in as the leader of the Protectionist party, adopted Free Trade and repealed the Corn Laws, for it closed a dangerous agitation which gave them much anxiety.
Within the Zollverein, after 1834, there was an almost unceasing struggle between the protectionist and Free Trade parties, Prussia supporting in the main a Liberal policy, while the South German states supported a Protectionist policy.
The trend of the tariff policy of the Zollverein for some time after 1834 was towards protection; partly because the specific duties of 1818 became proportionately heavier as manufactured commodities fell in price, partly because some actual changes in rates were made in response to the demands of the Protectionist states.
Tinctly Protectionist, though not to the same degree as in France.
He was a confirmed protectionist, and free trade ideas had made great way in France under the empire; he was an advocate of long military service, and the devotees of la revanche were all for the introduction of general and compulsory but short service.
Sir John Macdonald, then in opposition, had committed his party to a protectionist policy, and Laurier, notwithstanding that the Liberal party stood for a low tariff, avowed himself to be "a moderate protectionist."
The speech was enthusiastically received by the National Union of Conservative Associations, who had year by year flirted with protectionist resolutions, and who were known to be predominantly in sympathy with Mr Chamberlain.
The growth of the protectionist movement and the development of anti-slavery sentiment, however, drew it in the opposite direction, and it voted the Whig national ticket in 1840 and in 1848, and the Republican ticket for Lincoln in 1860.
The spinning and weaving of wool, cotton and silk are the principal industries, but the enterprising spirit of the Catalans has compelled them to try almost every industry in which native capital could attempt to compete with foreign, especially since the institution of the protectionist tariffs of 1892.
As the leader of the Protectionist wing of the party he was superseded by the tariff reform advocates, such as John G.
Here he was conspicuous as an ardent free-trader and an uncompromising advocate of "States Rights," opposed the protectionist tariff bills of 1824 and 1828, and consistently upheld the doctrine that slavery was a domestic institution and should be dealt with only by the individual states.
In 1880 he came to the front as the leading spokesman of the party which favoured the protection of French industries, and he had a considerable share in fashioning the protectionist legislation of the years 1890-1902.
To this relatively conservative bill, which substituted in many instances ad valorem for specific duties, and was intended by its author to be a revenue as well as a protective measure, were added many amendments which made the bill more strongly protectionist, and in some cases were vigorously opposed by Morrill.
As a matter of fact, as far as modern Europe is concerned, there has twice been a progression, separated by a period of retrogression, and it is to the latter that Bucher's picture of the agricultural and strictly protectionist town (the geschlossene Stadtwirtschaft) of the 14th and r 5th centuries belongs, while Sombart's notion of an entire absence of a spirit of capitalistic enterprise before the middle of the 15th century in Europe north of the Alps, or the 14th.
It was only afterwards that a protectionist spirit gained the upper hand, and each town made it its policy to restrict as far as possible the trade of strangers.
It is difficult to determine whether this was always his idea of incidental protection, or whether his views were changed after 1844 through the influence of Walker and the example set by Sir Robert Peel in Great Britain, or whether he was simply "playing politics" to secure the protectionist vote in Pennsylvania.
In spite of certain prejudices against the import of luxuries and the export of gold, there is little indication of the influence of mercantilist or protectionist ideas.
Influenced by the economic reaction which took place in 1879 in consequence of the state of affairs in Germany, where Prince Bismarck had introduced the protectionist system, a Protec- protectionist party had been formed, which tried to tionist gain adherents in the Riksdag.
Macdonald, the great protectionist prime minister of Canada, in a conversation with the presen writer in 1882, avowed without hesitation that protectionist taxation in Canada was indefensible on economic grounds, and he defended it exclusively for political reasons.
A great deal has been said as to taxes termed "countervailing duties," which are called for in order to defend free trade itself against the protectionist bounties of foreign governments.
When he was accused by the Liberals in 1904 of being a Protectionist, he explained on Feb.
He remained in power till 1878, when industrial depression enabled Macdonald to return to office on a protectionist programme.
In order to do this, :mmems. he sometimes figured as a free-trader and sometimes as a protectionist, but always in a practical sense; if he imposed prohibitive tariffs, in 1664 and 1667, he also opened the free ports of Marseilles and Dunkirk, and engineered the Canal du midi.
The first step of the new cabinet 4 Protec- was calculated to satisfy the protectionist aspirations tionist which had spread in the kingdom about the same I~e~nne.
Then, in 1891, they denounced all the treaties of commerce which contained clauses stipulating mostfavoured-nation treatment, and they prepared and put in force in February 1892 a protectionist tariff which completely reversed the moderate free-trade policy which had been so beneficial to the foreign commerce of Spain from 1868 to 1892.
The effects of a protectionist policy verging upon prohibition were soon sharply felt in.
The Protectionists in 1893 wrecked a treaty of commerce with Germany in the Senate; and Spain subsequently persevered in her protectionist policy.
In South Africa - as in any other British colony, since all of them were accustomed to tariffs of a protectionist nature, and the idea of a preference (already started by Canada) was fairly popular - Mr Chamberlain had found this view well established.
Analysing the trade statistics as between 1872 and 1902, he insisted that British progress involved a relative decline compared with that of protectionist foreign countries like Germany and the United States; Great Britain exported less and less of manufactured goods, and imported more and more; the exports to foreign countries had decreased, and it was only the increased exports to the colonies that maintained the British position.