The higher alcohols such as propyl, isobutyl, amyl, capryl, oenanthyl and caproyl, have been identified; and the amount of these vary according to the different conditions of the fermentation.
Propyl alcohols >>
But on the other hand, it is readily converted by hydrobromic acid into normal propyl bromide, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 Br.
Kane; methylethyl ketone and methyl-n-propyl ketone suffer similar condensations to s-triethylbenzene and s-tri-n-propylbenzene respectively.
191 3° Propyl hexoate..
An acetylenic or triple linkage is associated with a rise in the boiling-point; for example, propargyl compounds boil about 19.5° higher than the corresponding propyl compound.
The thermal effects increase as one passes from primary to tertiary alcohols, the values deduced from propyl and isopropyl alcohols and trimethyl carbinol being: - primary =45 08, secondary = 50.39, tertiary = 60.98.
Normal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, N204, sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 21 silicon tetrachloride, SiC1 4, phosphorus chloride, PC1 3, phosphoryl chloride, POC1 31 nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, carbon disulphide, benzene, pyridine, ether, methyl propyl ketone; association characterized many hydroxylic compounds: for ethyl alcohol the factor of association was 2.74-2.43, for n-propyl alcohol 2.86-2.72, acetic acid 3.62 -2.77, acetone 1 .
The magnitude of this separation would obviously depend on the magnitude of the substituent group, which may be so large (in this case propyl is sufficient) as to cause unequal horizontal deformation and at the same time a change in the vertical direction.
This last substance may be reduced to mesoporphyrin, C34H3804N4, which by further reduction gives haemopyrrol, C 8 11 13 N, possibly methyl-propyl-pyrrol or butyl-pyrrol.
In 1862 he prepared secondary propyl alcohol, and in 1863, with James Mason Crafts (b.
It is a colourless solid which melts at 92° C. For silicon derivatives of the amines see Michaelis, Ber., 1896, 29, p. 710; on asymmetric silicon and the resolution of dl-benzyl-ethyl-propyl-silicol see F.
J.C.S., 1907, 1, p. 632), who showed that two racemic propyl tetrahydroberberines are produced when propyl dihydroberberine is reduced.
An example is propyl alcohol and water.
The third most valuable indication which molecular structure gives about these isomers is how to prepare them, for instance, that normal hexane, represented by CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH3, may be obtained by action of sodium on propyl iodide, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 I, the atoms of iodine being removed from two molecules of propyl iodide, with the resulting fusion.
In this case it is readily seen that isomerism introduces itself in the three carbon atom derivative: the propyl alcohols, expressed by the formulae CH 3 CH2 CH 2 0HandCH 3 CHOH CH3, are known as propyl and isopropyl alcohol respectively.
It may be synthetically prepared by the fusion of cymol sulphonic acid with caustic potash; by the action of nitrous acid on 1-methyl-2-amino-4-propyl benzene; by prolonged heating of 5 parts of camphor with r part of iodine; or by heating carvol with glacial phosphoric acid.
CONINE, or Coniine (a-propyl piperidine), C 5 H 17 N, an alkaloid occurring, associated with y-coniceine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine and methyl conine, in hemlock (Conium maculatum).
Hofmann had shown that conine on distillation with zinc dust gave a-propyl pyridine (conyrine).
This substance when heated with hydriodic acid to 300° C. is converted into a-propyl piperidine, which can also be obtained by the reduction of a-allyl pyridine (formed from a-methyl pyridine and paraldehyde).
The a-propyl piperidine so obtained is the inactive (racemic) form of conine, and it can be resolved into the dextroand laevo-varieties by means of dextro-tartaric acid, the d-conine d-tartrate with caustic soda giving d-conine closely resembling the naturally occurring alkaloid.
A tetrahydro propyl pyridine.
Ethyl alcohol is taken as a type of the action of methyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, ether, acetic ether, paraldehyde, sulphonal, chloroform, methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, chloral hydrate, butylchloral hydrate, and almost any number of derivatives from these.
Thus amyl acetate is used as an imitation of the jargonelle-pear flavour; amyl valerate replaces apple flavour, and a mixture of ethyl and propyl butyrates yields the so-called pine-apple flavour.
Propane, CH 3 CH 2 CH 3, can give rise to two alcohols - a primary alcohol, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH (normal propyl alcohol), formed by replacing a hydrogen atom attached to a terminal carbon atom, and a secondary alcohol, CH 3.
It is interesting to note that, whereas zinc methyl and ethyl give tertiary alcohols, zinc propyl only gives secondary alcohols.
It dissolves gradually in concentrated sulphuric acid, forming propyl sulphate.
Hydriodic acid converts it into n-propyl iodide.
The hydrochloride of the latter base when distilled over zinc dust yields a-propyl pyridine.