4, &c.) and the anonymous blessings commonly called Shemoneh 'Esreh (the Eighteen), together with certain Psalms. (Readings from the Law and the Prophets [Haphtarah] also formed part of the service.) To this framework were fitted, from time to time, various prayers, and, for festivals especially, numerous hymns.
He does not discuss the possibility of successful resistance to the Chaldeans; he simply assumes that the attempt is foolish and wicked, and, like other prophets, he identifies his political programme with the will of God.
Ezekiel's own moral code is that of the prophets, which insists on the practice of the fundamental civic virtues.
Smith, Minor Prophets, ii.
Reinke's Commentary (Munster, 1868) is the work of a scholarly Roman Catholic. Haggai has generally been treated in works on all the prophets, as by Ewald (2nd ed., 1868; Eng.
Wellhausen (3rd ed., 1898); or with the other post-exile prophets, as by Kohler, Pressel (Gotha, 1870), Dods (1879) and others.
Kirkpatrick, The Doctrine of the Prophets; G.
After this event it grew again into importance and became the site of a college of prophets (2 Kings ii.
We know from many sources the prominence assigned to women prophets in the Phrygian church.
The Law and the Prophets being alone used in the services of the synagogue, there was no authorized version of the rest of the Canon.
Very important for the study of Midrashic literature are the Yalgut (gleaning) Shim`oni, on the whole Bible, the Yalqut Mekhiri, on the Prophets, Psalms, Proverbs and Job, and the Midrash ha-gadhol, 2 all of which are of uncertain but late date and preserve earlier material.
1508) wrote commentaries (not of the first rank) on the Pentateuch and Prophets and on the Moreh, philosophical treatises and apologetics, such as the Yeshu`oth Meshiho, all of which had considerable influence.
Among the Jews the preaching of the prophets had been a constant protest against the grosser forms of sacrifice, and there are indications that when Christianity arose bloody sacrifices were already beginning to fall into disuse; a saying which was attributed by the Ebionites to Christ repeats this protest in a strong form, "I.
While admitting that a special significance may have been attached in pre-exilian times to the full-moon Sabbath, and that the latter may have been specially intended in the combination " new moon and Sabbath " in the 8th-century prophets (Hos.
It was this definite basis of ethical Mosaic religion to which the prophets of the 8th century appealed, and apart from which their denunciations become meaningless.
- The rise of the order of prophets, who gradually emerged out of and became distinct from the old Hebrew " seer " or augur (r Sam.
The prophets taught that the national existence of the people was bound up with religious and social conditions; they were in a sense the politicians of the age, and to regard them simply as foretellers of the future is to limit their sphere unduly.
While the influence of the great prophets Elijah and Elisha is clearly visible, it is instructive to find that the south, too, has its 'share in the inauguration of the new era.
His extant commentaries (those on Canticles, on the Prophets, on the book of Psalms and on the Pauline epistles - the last the most valuable) are among the best performances of the fathers of the church.
In Jewish Church and Prophets of Israel are most helpful; see also J.-M.
19), prophets (2 Kings ii.
Both these documents are considered to have originated in the Northern kingdom, Israel, where also in the 8th century appeared the prophets Amos and Hosea.
The main part of the book of Deuteronomy was "found" shortly before 621 B.C. and about the same time appeared the prophets Jeremiah and Zephaniah, and perhaps the book of Ruth.
For the other books, the recognized Targum on the Prophets is that ascribed to Jonathan ben Uzziel (4th century ?), which originated in Palestine, but was edited in Babylonia, so that it has the same history and linguistic character as Onkelos.
Times of peace meant national disintegration and the lapse of Israel into the Canaanite local cults, which is interpreted by the redactor as the prophets of the 8th century would have interpreted it, viz.
The lifeand-death struggle between Israel and the Philistines in the reign of Saul called forth under Samuel's leadership a new order of " men of God," who were called " prophets " or divinely inspired speakers.'
Probably there was little externally to distinguish the prophet of Yahweh in the days of Samuel from the CanaanitePhoenician prophets of Baal and Asherah (1 Kings xviii.
Of this we have an interesting example in the vivid episode that preceded the battle of Ramoth-Gilead described in 1 Kings xxii., when Micaiah appears as the true prophet of Yahweh, who in his rare independence stands in sharp contrast with the conventional court prophets, who prophesied then, as their descendants prophesied more than two centuries later, smooth things.
This problem of religion was solved by Amos and by the prophets who succeeded him through a more exalted conception of Yahweh and His sphere of working, which tended to detach Him from His limited realm as a national deity.
The religion of the Hebrew race - properly the Jews - now enters on a new stage, for it should be observed that it was Amos, Isaiah and Micah - prophets of Judah - who laid the actual foundations.
The reaction into idolatry and Babylonian star worship in the long reign of Manasseh synchronized and was connected with vassalage 1 There is some danger in too strictly construing the language of the prophets and also the psalmists.
Doubtless such a reform met with strong resistance from the disestablished and vested interests, but it was firmly supported by royal influence and by the Jerusalem priesthood as well as by the true prophets of Yahweh who had protested against the idolatrous usages and corruptions of the high places.
The pre-exilian prophets (especially Isaiah) spoke of the forthcoming crisis in the world's history as a " day of the Lord."
By the older prophets this judgment of God or " day of Yahweh " was never held to be far removed from the horizon of the present or the world in which they lived.
Duhm's Theologie der Propheten and Robertson Smith's Prophets of Israel should also be consulted.
Strongly to be recommended are Smend, Lehrbuch der alttestamentlichen Religionsgeschichte; Bennett, Theology of the Old Testament and Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; A.
In Jewish Church, 1881, 2nd ed., 1892; Prophets of Israel, 1882, 2nd ed.
The northern kingdom cherished the institution of a monarchy, and in this, as in all great political events, the prophets took part.
The value of this external evidence for the history of Israel is enhanced by the fact that biblical tradition associates the changes in the thrones of Israel and Damascus with the work of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, but handles the period without a single reference to the Assyrian Empire.
It is a new source which is here suddenly introduced, belonging apparently to a history of the Temple; it throws no light upon the relations between Judah with its priests and Israel with its prophets, the circumstances of the regency under the priest Jehoiada are ignored, and the Temple reforms occupy the first place in the compiler's interest.
Jehoash, it is said, turned away from Yahweh after the death of Jehoiada and gave heed to the Judaean nobles, " wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for their guilt," prophets were sent to bring them back but they turned a deaf ear.
If the latter actually occurred, the hostility of the Israelite prophets is only to be expected.
Seers and prophets of all kinds ranged from those who were consulted for daily mundane affairs to those who revealed the oracles in times of stress, from those who haunted local holy sites to those high in royal favour, from the quiet domestic communities to the austere mountain recluse.
A recollection of the manifold forms which religious life and thought have taken in Christendom or in Islam, and the passions which are so easily engendered among opposing sects, will prevent a one-sided estimate of the religious standpoints which the writings betray; and to the recognition that they represent lofty ideals it must be added that the great prophets, like all great thinkers, were in advance of their age.