Reverting to incidents in England itself, in 1870 the abolition of university tests removed all restrictions on Jews at Oxford and Cambridge, and both universities have since elected Jews to professorships and other posts of honour.
He founded or endowed various professorships, including those of Hebrew and Arabic, and the office of public orator, encouraged English and foreign scholars, such as Voss, Selden and Jeremy Taylor, founded the university printing press, procuring in 1633 the royal patent for Oxford, and obtained for the Bodleian library over 1300 MSS., adding a new wing to the building to contain his gifts.
He became director of the music-school at Pforten in 1572, was transferred to Leipzig in the same capacity in 1594, and retained this post until his death on the 24th of November 1615, despite the offers successively made to him of mathematical professorships at Frankfort and Wittenberg.
The countess was very pious and charitable, and under the influence of her confessor, John Fisher, afterwards bishop of Rochester, she founded the Lady Margaret professorships of divinity at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
So long as the alliance of the autocratic empire and the clergy lasted (1852-1860), intellectual reaction reigned; the university professorships of history and philosophy were suppressed.
The same year the executors of Henry Lucas, who, according to the terms of his will, had founded a mathematical chair at Cambridge, fixed upon Barrow as the first professor; and although his two professorships were not inconsistent with each other, he chose to resign that of Gresham College, which he did on the 20th of May 1664.
The administration of the fund was handed over to a body of trustees, who devote the annual income (L100,000) partly to the payment of students' fees and partly to buildings, apparatus, professorships and research.
His learning gained him an exhibition from the king, and in 1540, on Henry VIII.'s foundation of the regius professorships, he was elected to the chair of Greek.
Towards the close of his eighth session three professorships were almost simultaneously put within his reach - at Erlangen, Berlin and Heidelberg.
He studied at Erlangen, held various professorships in the philosophical and theological faculties of Erlangen and GÃ¶ttingen, succeeded Franz Reinhard (1753-1812) in 1813 as court preacher and member of the consistorial court at Dresden, retired from these offices in 1849, and died on the 21st of May 1850.
The Lady Margaret Beaufort made him one of her executors, and in this capacity as well as in that of chancellor, he had the chief share with Fisher in regulating the foundation of St John's College and the Lady Margaret professorships and readerships.
But he failed to obtain either of two posts - the professorships of mathematics at the Royal Military Academy and of geometry in Gresham College - for which he applied in 1854, though he was elected to the former in the following year on the death of his successful competitor.
After studying at the Ecole Normale Superieure he held history professorships at various lycdes.
He became a Privatdozent in 1 819, and held professorships at Breslau (1822) and Halle (1824).