India and China are also very large producers of essential oils.
But beyond the fact that both Babylonia and Assyria were large producers of cereals, little is known of their husbandry.
For consistency in maintaining the protective principle a direct bounty was given to the domestic producers of sugar in Louisiana.
They possess a delicate Laticiferous layer of protoplasm, with numerous small nuclei lining Tissue the walls, while the interior of the tube (corresponding with the cell-vacuole) contains a fluid called latex, consisting of an emulsion of fine granules and drops of very various substances suspended in a watery medium in which various other substances (salts, sugars, rubber-producers, tannins, alkaloids and various enzymes) are dissolved.
The inhabitants of Peking being consumers only, and in no way producers, the trade of the city is very small, though the city is open to foreign commerce.
From this oppressive feeling he found relief in the thought set forth in the opening of the second book of his Political Economy - that, while the conditions of production have the necessity of physical laws, the distribution of what is produced among the various classes of producers is a matter of human arrangement, dependent upon alterable customs and institutions.
Germany, Austria, Hungary, France, Russia and the United States began to rank as producers during the second and third decades; Belgium entered in about 1840; Italy in the 'sixties; Mexico, Canada, Japan and Greece in the 'eighties; while Australia assumed importance in 1888 with a production of about 18,000 tons, although it had contributed small and varying amounts for many preceding decades.
In 1850 England headed the list of producers with about 66,000 tons; this amount had declined in 1872 to 61,000 tons.
The states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes are the largest producers, but it is also grown for export in Espirito Santo, Bahia and Ceara.
Among the palms there are several of great economic value, not only as food producers but also for various domestic uses.
Norway and Switzerland have become important producers of chemicals, and pastoral districts such as those in which Niagara or Foyers are situated manufacturing centres.
Those who go find means of bettering their own condition beyond the seas, where they become producers of food and raw material for the home country, and at the same time customers for her manufactured products.
The power that gall-producers possess of influencing by direct interference the growth of the cells of the plant that affords them the means of subsistence is an art that appears to be widely spread among animals, but is at the same time one of which we have little knowledge.
In the oceans alone there are estimated to be 1141 X 10 12 tons of sulphate, K 2 SO 4, but this inexhaustible store is not much drawn upon; and the "salt gardens" on the coast of France lost their industrial importance as potash-producers since the deposits at Stassfurt in Germany have come to be worked.
Mill justified protection - that, namely, in which an industry well adapted to a country is kept down by the acquired ascendancy of foreign producers - is referred to by Smith; but he is opposed to the admission of this exception for reasons which do not appear to be conclusive.
The table gives the outputs in metric tons of the most important producers in 1900 and 1905 (from Rothwell, Mineral Industry, 1908).
An anti-trust law of 1893 exempted from the definition of trust combinations those formed by producers of agricultural products and live stock, but the Un tied States Supreme Court in 1902 declared the statute unconstitutional as class legislation.
By far the greater part of the extant literary monuments of ancient Israel are precisely those monuments whose producers were most preoccupied by N.
Throughout Bengal the name by which the plants when used as edible vegetables are recognized is nalita; when on the other hand they are spoken of as fibre-producers it is generally under the name pat.
At one time Chile supplied Argentina and the entire West Coast as far north as California with wheat, but Argentina and California have become wheat producers and exporters, and Chile has been driven from all her old consuming markets.
B.) Pathological Importance The action of bacteria as pathogenic agents is in great part merely an instance of their general action as producers of chemical change, yet bacteriology as a whole has become so extensive, and has so important a bearing on subjects widely different from one another, that division of it has become essential.
It is to be noted that there is no fixed relation between toxin production and bacterial multiplication in the body, some of the organisms most active as toxin producers having comparatively little power of invading the tissues.
In 1908 the richest producers of gold were Salt Lake (60,872.63 oz.), Juab (58,679.17 oz.) and Tooele (41,969.96 oz.) counties, which produced about nine-tenths of the total for the state; in Salt Lake and Juab counties the principal source was copper ore, but in Tooele county almost all the gold was from siliceous ores.
The industry is carried on by private producers as well as by the state, the American Standard Oil Company being largely interested.
But it is to be noted that St Louis is one of the leading producers of street-railway cars.
Spain also supplies much pyrites to Germany, France and America, all of which countries are themselves producers of this ore.
- The first gas-producers, which were built by Faber du Faur at Wasseralfingen in 1836 and by C. G.
Such producers, frequently strengthened by a wrought iron casing, are even now used to a great extent.
In these cases the producers are arranged outside the iron-works, glass-works, &c., in an open yard where all the manipulations of feeding them with coal, of stoking, and of removing the ashes are performed without interfering with the work inside.
But care must always be taken to place the producers at such a low level that the gas has an upward tendency, in order to facilitate its passage to the furnace where it is to be burned.
The gas-producers constructed by Messrs Siemens Brothers, from 1856 onwards, were provided with a kind of brick chimney; on the top of this there was a horizontal iron tube, continued into an iron down-draught, and only from this the underground flues were started which sent the gas into the single furnaces.
Producers constructed, selecting some of the most widely applied in practice.
' - Siemens This, as well as most other descriptions of gas-producers, is not adapted to being worked with such coal as softens in the heat and where it is to be used.
One of the best-known gas-producers for working with compressed air from below is Taylor's, shown in fig.
Wyer, Producer-Gas and Gas-Producers, published by the Engineering and Mining Journal (New York); F.
These open woods cover a considerable part of Kordofan, the hashab and talh trees being the chief producers of gum arabic. South of 12° N.
The other chief producers were Pyrnes-Orientales, Calvados, Haute-Marne (Vassy) and Saneet-Loire (Mazenay and Change).
The use of certain plants as rubber-producers (notably Hevea b~-a~iliensis, the Pam rubber-tree) depends on this property.
The Cobre copper mines near Santiago were once the greatest producers of the world.
These vines are less satisfactory than trees as rubber producers, owing to the readiness with which they are injured and destroyed by careless tapping, and to the difficulty of regulating these methods in the case of vines distributed over enormous areas of forest.
The coffee producers of Sao Paulo and other states found that the appreciation in value of the milreis was reducing their profits, and they advocated this measure (at first with a valuation of 12d.) to check the upward movement in exchange.
In Europe the gas burnt in these furnaces is derived from special gas-producers, while in some parts of America natural gas is utilized.
Among the regions not previously important as gold-producers which now contribute to the annual output, the most remarkable are the goldfields of South Africa (Transvaal and Rhodesia, the former of which were discovered in 1885).
The Central Brewery Board in connexion with the Central Association of the Austrian Brewery Association), which set up their own distributing-stations and divided the raw material among producers according to a scale fixed by the Government, charging the producers a commission, in addition to the cost price, in order to cover costs.
By far the leading industry of the city is the manufacture of boots, shoes and slippers, chiefly of the finer kinds, of which it is one of the largest producers in the world.
Ohio, West Virginia and California appeared as producers in 1876, Kentucky and Tennessee in 1883, Colorado in 1887.
Appalachian, 235,999,859; Lima-Indiana-Illinois, 219,609,347; Mid- Continent, 136,148,892; Gulf, 159,520,306; California, 27,931,687; and others, 3,367,666; the leading producers in1907-1908being the Mid-Continent and the California areas.
Pennsylvania, with a product valued at $155,620,395 from 1899 to 1908, West Virginia with $84,955,496, Ohio with $48,172,450 and Indiana with $46,141,553 were the greatest producers of the Union.
Were the leading producers in 1908, in which year the totals for the two metals were $94,560,000 for gold and $28,050,600 for silver.
But the state's iron foundries moved rapidly westward after the first successful experiments in making pig-iron with bituminous coal, in 1845, and the discovery, a few years later, that rich ore could be obtained there at less cost from the Lake Superior region resulted in a decline of iron-mining within the state until, in 1902, the product amounted to only 822,932 long tons, 72.2% of which was magnetite ore from the Cornwall mines in Lebanon county which have been among the largest producers of this kind of ore since the erection of the Cornwall furnace in 1742.
The Fox river furnishes about 10,000 h.p., which is largely utilized for the manufacture of paper (of which Appleton is one of the largest producers in the United States), wood-pulp, sulphite fibre, machinery, wire screens, woollen goods, knit goods, furniture, dyes and flour.
The air and gas, the latter coming from the gas producers or other source, arrive through H and J respectively, and their path thence is determined by the position of the reversing valves K and K'.
We may note with interest that the three great iron producers so closely related by blood-Great Britain, the United States and Germany and Luxemburg-made in 1907 81% of the world's pig iron and 83% of its steel; and that the four great processes by which nearly all steel and wrought iron are made-the puddling, crucible and both the acid and basic varieties of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes, as well as the steam-hammer and grooved rolls for rolling iron and steel-were invented by Britons, though in the case of the openhearth process Great Britain must share with France the credit of the invention.
China and Japan have hitherto been regarded as the chief producers of tea, and the reputed large domestic consumption of those Mongolian peoples has led to assumptions of vast internal productions.
Of European producers, Germany, Spain and Austria are the most important; Greece, Italy, France, Turkey and Russia occupy secondary positions.
The further development of the honey extractor has of late been limited to an increase in the size of machine used, in order to save time and manual labour, and thus meet the requirements of the largest honey producers, who extract honey by the car load.
Third on the list of continental producers is Switzerland; Zurich takes the lead with broad goods (failles, armures, satins, serges, &c.), and Basel rivals St Etienne in the ribbon trade.