In the middle ages there was a constant succession of pageants, processions and tournaments.
Other decrees denounced the abuse of indulgences, of festivals of saints, and of processions and suggested reforms; others again enjoined the closing of shops on Sunday during divine service, the issue of service-books with parallel translations in the vernacular, and recommended the abolition of all monastic orders except that of St Benedict, the rules of which were to be brought into harmony with modern ideas; nuns were to be forbidden to take the vows before the age of 40.
The use of the word is, however, late, the vigiliae (pernoctationes, 7ravvvXiSes) having originally been the services, consisting of prayers, hymns, processions and sometimes the eucharist, celebrated on the preceding night in preparation for the feast.
Day and night, long processions of all classes and ages, headed by priests carrying crosses and banners, perambulated the streets in double file, reciting prayers and drawing the blood from their bodies with leathern thongs.
The king and his courtiers joined in the processions in the garb of penitents, and scourged themselves with ostentation.
Hyndman and others in Socialist meetings and processions in London to demand work for the unemployed.
Classical forms, variety of treatment and freedom of colouring, while the processions are monotonous and inferior in execution, intended rather to produce a decorative effect than beauty of form.
3); the symbolical processions in honour of "King Crispin" at Stirling and Edinburgh were particularly famous.
It is worn, too, on the vigils of fasts, Ember Days and days of intercession, on the Feast of Holy Innocents (if on a week-day), at litanies, penitential processions, and at other than solemn benedictions and consecrations.
2 On the other hand, the Roman ordines of the 8th and 9th centuries make no mention of the mitre; the evidence goes to prove that this liturgical head-dress was first adopted by the popes some time in the 10th century; and Father Braun shows convincingly that it was in its origin nothing else than the papal regnum or phrygium which, originally worn only at outdoor processions and the like, was introduced into the church, and thus developed into the liturgical mitre, while outside it preserved its original significance as the papal 1 Father Braun, S.
The tradition of the mitre as an episcopal ornament has, nevertheless, been continuous in the Church of England, " and that on three lines: (i) heraldic usage; (2) its presence on the head of effigies of bishops, of which a number are extant, of the 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th centuries; (3) its presence in funeral processions, where 1 In Father Braun's opinion, expressed to the writer, this mitre, which was formerly at Sens, belongs probably to the 13th century.
The blanched fronds are also sold in large quantities for the processions of Palm Sunday, and after they have received the blessing of the priest they are regarded throughout Spain as certain defences against lightning.
Between this outlet and the Dipylon were found a boundary-stone, inscribed Epos Kepaµ€LKou, which remains in its place, and the foundations of a large rectangular building, possibly the Pompeium, which may have been a robing-room for the processions which passed this way.
40, though in Jewish tradition the latter passage was taken to refer to the Lulab, or a combination of twigs of willow and myrtle, with a palm branch, which, together with a citron, are held in the hand during processions in the synagogue?
The place-name "Gospel Oak," which occurs in London and elsewhere, is a relic of these rogation processions, the gospel of the day being read at the foot of the finest oak the parish boasted.
After the Reformation the processions gradually ceased to be ecclesiastical in England, and are now practically secularized into the perambulation of the parish boundaries on or about Ascension Day.
Hitherto the chasuble had been worn indifferently by all ministers at the eucharist, even by the acolytes; it had been worn also at processions and other non-liturgical functions; it was now exalted into the mass vestment par excellence, worn by the celebrant only, or by his immediate assistants (deacon and subdeacon) only on very special occasions.
The kalimaukion is also worn by the other clergy in ordinary life, and with their vestments at processions, &c.
White is also the colour proper to sacramental processions, and generally to all devotions connected with the exposition of the Blessed Sacrament.
Violet vestments are also worn on days of intercession, at votive masses of the Passion, at certain other masses of a pronouncedly intercessory and penitential character, at intercessory processions, at the blessing of candles on Candlemas Day, and at the blessing of the baptismal water.
As this increases from zero, the two processions which correspond to the two halves of the aperture begin to overlap, and the overlapping gradually increases until there is almost complete superposition.
If the retardation be too little, the overlapping of the processions is incomplete, so that besides the procession of half period there are residues of the original processions of full period.
The ceremonial clothing of the god on the occasion of festal processions, undertaken in Egypt by the `` master of secret things," may be compared with the well-known Babylonian representations of such promenades.
The Missal of the Roman Church now enjoins incensation before the introit, at the gospel and again at the offertory, and at the elevation, in every high mass; the use of incense also occurs at the exposition of the sacrament, at consecrations of churches and the like, in processions, in the office for the burial of the dead and at the exhibition of relics.
The royal processions arranged in connexion with coronations were of great antiquity, but one of the earliest to be described is that of Henry III.
Among other events which made the streets gay and centred in processions to St Paul's may be specially mentioned the Thanksgiving Day on the 27th of February 1872 for the recovery of the prince of Wales after his dangerous illness; and the rejoicings at the Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1887, and the Diamond Jubilee in 1897.
The manufacture had then no doubt attained considerable proportions: in 1268 the glass-workers became an incorporated body; in their processions they exhibited decanters, scent-bottles and the like; in 1279 they made, among other things, weights and measures.
Some of the later specimens have views of cities, battle scenes and processions painted in grisaille.
The Army operates (1) by outdoor meetings and processions; (2) by visiting public-houses, prisons, private houses; (3) by holding meetings in theatres, factories and other unusual buildings; (4) by using the most popular song-tunes and the language of everyday life, &c.; (5) by making every convert a dailywitness for Christ, both in public and private.
The subjects depicted are processions of figures, human and divine (Yasili Kaya, Euyuk, Giaur Kalessi); scenes of sacrifice or adoration, or other cult-practice (Yasili Kaya, Euyuk, Fraktin, Ivriz, and perhaps the figures seated beside tables at Marash Sakchegeuzu, Sinjerli, &c.); of the chase (Arslan Tepe, Sakchegeuzu); but not, as known at present, of battle.
Alms were often given even to non-gildsmen; lights were supported at certain altars; feasts and processions were held periodically; the funerals of brethren were attended; and masses for the dead were provided from the common purse or from special contributions made by the gildsmen.
One type took the form of a candelabrum with a small flat brazier on the top. They were carried in processions and were lifted by cords.
In Umbrian villages on Easter Sunday the images of Jesus and His Mother are carried in rival processions from their respective chapels, and are made to bow when they meet face to face.
Next year the Mass, processions and the images of saints were abolished.
Courtrai celebrated the 600th anniversary of the battle mentioned above by erecting a monument on the field in 1902, and also by fetes and historical processions that continued for a fortnight.
The cremations of great people, which often last several days, are the occasion of public festivities and are celebrated with processions, theatrical shows, illuminations and fireworks.
Processions with pipe and hand-drum, such as that described in I Sam.
At the base, and rising steeply in five terraces to the height of 86 ft., showed conspicuously to the city the long processions of priests and victims winding along the terraces and up to corner flights of steps.
The rites performed were such as are found elsewhere - prayer, sacrifice, processions, dances, Brasseur de Bourbourg.
Marriages, processions, &c.
Finally, for the convenience of processions, the nave and chancel aisles were carried round behind the high altar as ambulatories.
According to the actual use of the Roman Catholic Church dalmatic and tunicle are worn by deacon and subdeacon when assisting at High Mass, and at solemn processions and benedictions.
It was used as a promenade, and as a place from which to view the festal processions as they passed towards the Altis.
Raised on three steps, and formed by a single Doric colonnade, open towards the Altis, it afforded a place from which spectators could conveniently view the passage of processions and the sacrifices at the great altar of Zeus.
Church festivals, civic and ecclesiastical processions are almost as animated and picturesque as in Seville itself; and many medieval customs continue to flourish side by side with the most modern features of industrial life, giving to Barcelona a character altogether unique among Spanish cities.
The protection of parents against children and vice versa, protection of widows, wardship of heiresses and orphans, divorce; in religious matters he superintended the Dionysia, the Thargelia, the processions in honour of Zeus the Saviour and Asclepius.
The campaign was unusually animated - only the Whig campaign for William Henry Harrison in 1840 is comparable to it: there were great torchlight processions of "wide-awake" clubs, which did "railfence," or zigzag, marches, and carried rails in honour of their candidate, the "rail-splitter."
A car drawn by oxen seems to have been widely used in the processions of Hera, and the cow was her most frequent sacrifice.
The Mahmal, a kind of covered litter, first originated by Queen Sheger-ed-Dur, is brought into the city in procession, though not with as much pomp as when it leaves with the pilgrims. These and other processions have lost much of their effect since the extinction of the Mamelukes, and the gradual disuse of gorgeous dress for the retainers of the,, officers of state.
At the close of this age the fashion of long processions of animals ppears (Plate I.
Currus) used in battle, for the chase, in public processions and in games.
Among the Greeks and Romans, on the other hand, the chariot had passed out of use in war before historical times, and was retained only for races in the public games, or for processions, without undergoing any alteration apparently, its form continuing to correspond with the description of Homer, though it was lighter in build, having to carry only the charioteer.
Just as the inhabitants of each town honoured their tutelar deity by solemn processions to his temple, so, at the period of the Olympic games, the temple of Zeus at Olympia formed the goal of multitudes from every Hellenic country.
The visitation of the holy places was conducted in processions headed by the Franciscans of the Convent of Zion.
The hawthorn has been regarded as the emblem of hope, and its branches are stated to have been carried by the ancient Greeks in wedding processions, and to have been used by them to deck the altar of Hymen.