The title was made; heritable in order of primogeniture, and in the case of archbishops through their nephews.
In Spain, on the other hand, the title of conde, the earlier history of which follows much the same development as in France, is still of much social value, mainly owing to the fact that the rule of primogeniture exists, and that, a large fee being payable to the state on succession to a title, it is necessarily associated with some degree of wealth.
The principle of primogeniture was not introduced until the end of the 17th century, so that the Protestant Saxon dynasty, instead of building up a single compact kingdom for itself, has split into four petty duchies, of no political influence whatever.
The crown is hereditary in both the male and the female line according to primogeniture; but it is only in default of male heirs that females can come to the throne.
At this time the principle of primogeniture was unknown in the house of Habsburg, and for many years the duchies were ruled in common by two, or even three, members of the family.
By a law of primogeniture he secured his land against such testamentary divisions as had diminished his own portion of his father's estate.
Of primogeniture, while Hesiod is all for the opposite and probably earlier custom of Jiingsten-recht, and makes supreme Zeus the youngest of the sons of Cronus.
In 1639 inheritance by primogeniture was abolished, and this resulted in conflict with the British courts in the 18th century.
The difficulty of determining in any case the exact significance of the title of a German count, illustrated by the above, is increased by the fact that the title is generally heritable by all male descendants, the only exception being in Prussia, where, since 1840, the rule of primogeniture has prevailed and the bestowal of the title is dependent on a rent-roll of £3000 a year.
The succession to the throne is hereditary in the order of primogeniture in the male line of the house of Habsburg-Lorraine; and failing this, in the female line.
1577, which has remained ever since the centre of the Sikh religious worship. From this time onward the office of guru became hereditary, but the practice of primogeniture was not followed, each guru selecting the relative who seemed most fitted to succeed him.
This accident darkened his prospects; for though by the death of his elder brother he should have represented the family and entered the army, yet he forfeited the rights of primogeniture, and the profession of arms was thenceforth closed to him.
Frederick's new position as elector, combined with his personal qualities to make him one of the most powerful princes in Germany, and had the principle of primogeniture been established in his country, Saxony and not Prussia might have been the leading power to-day in the German empire.
All these, however, were extinct by 1741, and their possessions returned to the main line, which had adopted the principle of primogeniture in 1719.
As neither Joseph nor Napoleon had a male heir, the eldest brother, whose ideas of primogeniture were very strict, claimed to be recognized as heir, while Napoleon wished to recognize the son of Louis Bonaparte.
On his deathbed Richard, reversing his former arrangements, caused his barons to swear fealty to John (1199), although the hereditary claim of Arthur was by the law of primogeniture undoubtedly superior.
He carried legislation for the abolition of primogeniture, secured equality of inheritance between relations of the same degree, and between men and women.
Having introduced the principle of primogeniture into Calenberg in 1682, Ernest determined to secure for himself the position of an elector, and the condition of Europe and the exigencies of the emperor favoured his pretensions.
He was a member of the state legislature from 1782 to 1798, and in 1791 drafted the act which abolished primogeniture in South Carolina.
In 1506 Albert decreed that the duchy should pass undivided according to the rules of primogeniture, and endeavoured in other ways also to consolidate Bavaria.
The Celts (apart from the claimant of the blood of Lulach and the house of Moray) placed Donald Ban on the throne; England supported Duncan (by primogeniture Malcolm's heir, and a hostage in England); there was division of the kingdom till Duncan was slain, and Edgar, son of Malcolm and Margaret, was restored by Edgar ZEtheling.
Their estates have been guaranteed to them on payment of a peshkash or permanent tribute, and are saved by the custom of primogeniture from the usual fate of subdivision.
Eisenach fell to Saxe-Weimar in 1644, and although the enlarged principality of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach was temporarily split up into the lines Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Eisenach and Saxe-Jena, it was again united under Ernest Augustus, who began to reign in 1728, and the adoption of the principle of primogeniture about this time secured it against further divisions.
In this latter case the rule of primogeniture has been usual, the younger sons taking the title of " count " (Graf).
Customs of succession were also peculiar in many cases of socage tenure, and the feudal rule of primogeniture was not generally enforced.
By this instrument the elector decreed that the electoral mark should pass in its entirety to his eldest son, an establishment of primogeniture which had considerable influence on the future development of the country.
The growth of Prussia provided Anhalt with a formidable neighbour, and the establishment and practice of primogeniture by all branches of the family prevented further divisions of the principality.
28 a descends entire in order of primogeniture, and by preference to the male heir; the emperor and his consort must belong to the Eastern Orthodox Church; the emperor can wear no crown that entails residence abroad.
In the first place, the Crusades represent the attempt of a feudal system, bound under the law of primogeniture to dispose of its younger sons.
The rightful heir, in the natural order of primogeniture, was the little grand duke Peter, son of the Tsarevich Alexius, a child of six; but Peter decided to pass him over in favour of his own beloved consort Catherine.
Time-honoured custom had hitherto reckoned primogeniture in the male line as the best 'title to the Russian crown; in the ustav of 1722 Peter denounced primogeniture in general as a stupid, dangerous, and even unscriptural practice of dubious origin.
Somewhat later the adoption of hereditary surnames and armorial bearings marked the existence of a large and noble class who either from the subdivision of fiefs or from the effects of the custom of primogeniture were very insufficiently provided for.
The crown is hereditary in the house of Wittelsbach, according to the rights of primogeniture, females being excluded from succession so long as male agnates of equal birth exist.
Another source of revenue was afforded by Ismail Pasha, the khedive of Egypt, who paid heavily in bakshish for the firman of 1866, by which the succession to the khedivate was made hereditary from father to son in direct line and in order of primogeniture, as well as for the subsequent firmans of 1867, 1869 and 1872 extending the khedive's prerogatives.
Under the latter prince the country prospered greatly, and having introduced the principle of primogeniture, he died and was succeeded by his infant son, Bernard Ernest Freund (1800-1882), whose mother, Eleanora of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, governed in his name until 1821.
1729), who called himself duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and who left two sons, Christian Ernest and Francis Josiah, who ruled the land together, the principle of primogeniture being introduced by the survivor of the two, Francis Josiah.
His next publications also were on economic or political subjects, Rationale of Political Representation (1835), and Money and its Vicissitudes (1837), now practically forgotton; about the same time also appeared some of his pamphlets, Discussion of Parliamentary Reform, Right of Primogeniture Examined, Defence of Joint-Stock Banks.
Usually the king's son became tanist, but not because the system of primogeniture was in any way recognized; indeed, the only principle adopted was that the dignity of chieftainship should descend to the eldest and most worthy of the same blood.
Of the measures proposed to this end he says: "I considered four, passed or reported, as forming a system by which every trace would be eradicated of ancient or future aristocracy, and a foundation laid for a government truly republican" - the repeal of the laws of entail; the abolition of primogeniture and the unequal division of inheritances (Jefferson was himself an eldest son); the guarantee of freedom of conscience and relief of the people from supporting, by taxation, an established church; and a system of general education.
In addition most of them follow the rule of primogeniture, while a power of entail has recently been granted.