The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera, an epidemic which destroyed io% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death-rate was reduced to below i %.
The Indian government formerly maintained a large preventive establishment for the preservation of the revenue, but it was withdrawn in 1898.
In 1914, after the outbreak of war, Rosa Luxemburg was sentenced to a year's imprisonment for inciting to insubordination and remained throughout the war in preventive custody.
The Senate was intended to play the part of an organ of supervision, so as to act as a preventive of too hasty or too loosely drawn-up legislation.
In the 1803 edition he introduced the new element of the preventive check supplied by what he calls "moral restraint," and is thus enabled to "soften some of the harshest conclusions" at which he had before arrived.
The tax levied upon salt varied extremely in different parts of the country, and a strong preventive staff was required to be stationed along a continuous barrier hedge, which almost cut the peninsula into two fiscal sections.
Du Cane, Punishment and Prevention of Crime (1885); Braco, Estudos penitenciarios e criminaes (Lisbon, 1888); Garofalo, Studio sul delitto, sulle sui cause e sui mezzi di repressione (1890); Adolphe Guillot, Les Prisons de Paris (1890); Tallack, Preventive and Penological Principles (1896); Salillas, Vida penal en Espana (Madrid).
Preventive measures of this kind have long been in use in France, with the result shown in Tables V.
Thomas Dickson of Edinburgh long ago observed that the most healthy and productive crop was to be obtained by planting unripe tubers, and proposed this as a preventive of the disease called the "curl," which sometimes attacks the young stems, causing them and also the leaves to become crumpled, and few or no tubers to be produced; in this connexion it is interesting to note that Scottish and Irish seed potatoes give a larger yield than English, probably on account of their being less matured.
It was formerly supposed that the injection of attenuated cultures or dead organisms-vaccines in the widest sensewas only of service in producing immunity as a preventive measure against the corresponding organism, but the work of Sir Almroth Wright has shown that the use of such vaccines may be of service even after infection has occurred, especially when the resulting disease is localized.
The methods of active immunity have been practically applied in preventive inoculation against disease; those of passive immunity have given us serum therapeutics.
Where the disease is endemic or is prevailing epidemically, it is of great importance to use all preventive measures, and for this purpose the avoidance of all causes likely to precipitate an attack is to be enjoined.
Chemicals sulphate of copper, employed chiefly as a preventive 01 certain maladies of the vine; carbonate of lead, hyper.
Such statistics are studied mainly with the object of learning the lessons which they may afford as to preventive measures for the future; and from this point of view the most important element is the single item of passengers killed in train accidents (a 1).
The laws concerning the Jews had a repressive and preventive object: the repression of Judaism and the prevention of inroads of Jewish influences into the state religion.
As a preventive repeated spraying with dilute Bordeaux mixture is recommended, during the flowering season and early development of the fruit.
Nitroglycerin is valuable as a preventive in cases of cardiac pain, such as angina pectoris, and it is also used in other conditions where it is desirable to reduce the arterial tension.
For some of these, as redwater (pyrosoma), antidotes are already found; for others, as for Texas fever - of which the parasite is unknown, but the mode of its transmission, by the mosquito, discovered (Finlay-Reed) - preventive measures are reducing the prevalence.
From the new regard given by physiologists and pathologists to the study of origins, and in the new hopes of thus dealing with disease at its springs, not in individuals only but in cities and nations, issued the great school of Preventive Medicine, initiated in England - E.
The means which have proved most efficacious, both as a remedy and a preventive of this disease, is to scatter flowers of sulphur over mthe vines, before the morning dew has evaporated.
A note in his diary, dated the 7th of November 1749, shows that he had then 4 Malthus quoted Franklin in his first edition, but it was not until the second that he introduced the theory of the " preventive check."
A laboratory is maintained for bacteriological and pathological researches and for the preparation of preventive vaccines.
Mushet's aid was certainly valuable, but not more than Goransson's, who, besides thus offering a preventive of redshortness, further helped the process on by raising its temperature by the simple expedient of further subdividing the blast, thus increasing the surface of contact between blast and metal, and thus in turn hastening the oxidation.
In Ireland by an act of 1881 the Irish executive was given an absolute power of arbitrary and preventive arrest on suspicion of treason or of an act tending to interfere with the maintenance of law and order: but the warrant of arrest was made conclusive.
A gunboat for preventive service purchased from the British government and commanded by an Englishman, with native petty officers and crew, is employed by the Liberian government.
The most interesting of Pasteur's investigations in preventive and curative medicine remains to be told.
It is only when such obvious truths are clothed in the technical terminology of "positive" and "preventive checks" that they appear novel and profound; and yet they appear to contain the whole message of Malthus to mankind.
As a preventive to its attacks the copper sulphate sprays and a solution (50%) of iron sulphate have been found very useful, as well as care in planting on well-drained soil that does not lie too low, the disease seldom appearing in dry, well-exposed vineyards.