1909) seeks to trace and to refute certain philosophical presuppositions at work in the book's treatment, especially of the Miracles, the Resurrection and the Institution of the Church.
Aristotle himself used "dialectic," as opposed to "science," for that department of mental activity which examines the presuppositions lying at the back of all the particular sciences.
Chief among these encumbering presuppositions was that of a fundamental distinction between perception and conception and consequent upon it between the synthetic and the analytic use of thought.
The " Logic " of Hegel is merely the continuation of Kant's " Deduction " of the categories and ideas of the reason which has generally been recognized as the soberest of attempts to set forth the presuppositions which underlie all experience.
The author's intelligence and acuteness are more completely hampered by doctrinal presuppositions when he comes to treat questions relating to the history of the individual books of the New Testament canon.
This is not a prominent feature in Plotinus or his immediate disciples, who still exhibit full confidence in the subjective presuppositions of their philosophy.
But, unfortunately for Fechner, the very opposite conclusion followed from the presuppositions of his parallelistic metaphysics, and from the Leibnitzian view of the conservation of energy, which he was the first in our time to use in order to argue that a physical cause cannot produce a psychical effect, on the ground that physical energy must be exactly replaced by physical energy.
It is, in fact, a common point of Jevons, Sigwart and Wundt that the universal is not really a conclusion inferred from given particulars, but a hypothetical major premise from which given particulars are inferred, and that this major contains presuppositions of causation not contained in the particulars.
It is with Aristotle that the bookish tradition begins to dominate the evolution of logic. The technical perfection of the analysis which he offers is, granted the circle of presuppositions within which it works, so decisive, that what precedes, even Plato's logic, is not unnaturally regarded as merely preliminary and subsidiary to it.
Before Aristotle Logic needs as its presuppositions that thought should distinguish itself from things and from sense, that the problem of validity should be seen to be raised in the field of thought itself, and that analysis of the structure of physical thought should be recognized as the one way of solution.
Considered from the epistemological point of view, they are the implicit presuppositions of the construction or auXXo-yta,u63 6 in which knowledge consists.
3 Socrates' reference of a discussion to its presuppositions (Xenophon, Mein.
Finally, it is on the whole in keeping with Mill's presuppositions to admit even in the case of the method of difference that in practice it is approximative and instructive, while the theoretical formula, to which it aims at approaching asymptotically as limit, if exact, is in some sense sterile.
Those features in our organized experience are to be regarded as transcendentally established which are the presuppositions of our having that experience at all.
" The universal presuppositions which form the outline of our ideal of knowledge are not so much laws which the understanding prescribes to nature.
Only in the sense of presuppositions without which we should work with no hope of success and merely at random and which therefore we must believe."
Thus in Buddhism the presuppositions which Buddha uncritically took over work out their logical results in the Mahayana, so that great sects calling themselves " Buddhist " affirm what the Master denied and deny what he taught.
More properly perhaps we might consider the Greek and Roman civilization as the permanent element - so that the relationship to it was not different from the relationship to Judaism - in part it was denied, in part it was of purpose accepted, in still larger part unconsciously the Greek-Roman converts took over with them the presuppositions of their older world view - and thus formed the moulds into which the Christian truth was run.
Questions which had never been asked came into the foreground, and the Jewish presuppositions tended to disappear.
The truth of this will be apparent if it is considered that the Moral and Political Philosophy admittedly embodies two presuppositions: (I) that "God Almighty wills and wishes the happiness of His creatures," and (2) that adequate motives must be supplied to virtue by a system of future rewards and punishments.
These and similar assumptions are ultimate presuppositions or working hypotheses for the sciences themselves.
Such an account may be distinguished from what is usually called the science of religion by the teleological or 'metaphysical presuppositions it involves.
The special intellectual presuppositions which he continues to share with Judaism.
They enter into the basis of theology; results attained by long struggles in the East are simply presuppositions to the West; but, for the most part, no independent interest attaches to them in the Western world.
But ultimately they persuaded themselves to accept these definitions as normal and biblical, and as presuppositions of Christ's saving work.
Locke was perhaps too little read in the literature of philosophy to do full justice to those more subtle thinkers who, from Plato downwards, have recognized the need for categories of the understanding and presuppositions of reason in the constitution of knowledge.
Criticism of the presuppositions implied in those facts - by Kant and his successors, and in Britain more unpretentiously byReid, all under the stimulus of Hume's sceptical criticism - has employed philosophers since the author of the Essay on Human Understanding collected materials that raised deeper philosophical problems than he tried to solve.
Yet it may be doubted (1) whether the problem would ever have arisen at all except for the necessity of reconciling the theological and metaphysical hypotheses of the omniscience and omnipotence of God with the needs of a moral universe: and (2) whether it would retain its perennial interest if the incursions of modern scientific and psychological inquiry into the domain of human consciousness did not appear to come into conflict from time to time with the presuppositions of morality.
Of the Creation at once challenged the pantheistic presuppositions of Hellenic thought and reinforced the belief already existing in will as a real cause.
No matter to what extent the unphilosophical thinker may be under the influence of materialistic presuppositions, he always recoils from the conclusion that the facts of his mental life have no influence upon his physical movements.
The determinist presuppositions of psy chology (determinist because they involve the applica tion of the causal conceptions of modern science to mental phenomena) have in many instances in no way retarded the utilization of new information concerning mental processes in order to prove the reality of freedom.
Philosophy is a process of reflection upon the presuppositions involved in unreflective thought.
Baader starts from the position that human reason by itself can never reach the end it aims at, and maintains that we cannot throw aside the presuppositions of faith, church and tradition.
This test is roughly of two kinds, first by the ultimate principles or presuppositions on which a particular branch of knowledge rests, and second by the comparison of correlative facts.