There is a considerable trade in cotton, in connexion with which there are large steam presses, and some manufacture of cotton cloth.
The buildings are modern, but some scanty remains of rock-hewn wine presses and a few scattered sarcophagi mark the antiquity of the site.
At last one Tommaso Baglioni, who had no work for his presses, undertook to print the manuscript, on condition that he should be free to leave off if more promising work offered itself.
The existing system of taxation also presses heavily upon the provinces, as may be seen from the fact that the national, provincial and municipal exactions together amount to £7 per head of population, while the total value of the exports in 1898 was only L6 in round numbers.
The keys which hold the rail in the chairs are usually of oak and are placed outside the rails; the inside position has also been employed, but has the disadvantage of detracting from the elasticity of the road since the weight of a passing train presses the rails up against a rigid mass of metal instead of against a slightly yielding block of wood.
In 1888, at Nottingham, hay and straw presses for steam-power, horse-power and handpower were the subjects of competition.
Large baling presses are worked by hydraulic power; the operation needs no special description.
In 1904 the total number of factories was 391, almost entirely cotton presses and ginning factories, which received an immense impetus from the rise in cotton prices.
The most important manufactures are iron and steel, carriage hardware, electrical supplies, bridges, boilers, engines, car wheels, sewing machines, printing presses, agricultural implements, and various other commodities made wholly or chiefly from iron and steel.
The proboscis, passing down this groove to the spur, becomes dusted with pollen; as it is drawn back, it presses up the lip-like valve of the stigma so that no pollen can enter the stigmatic chamber; but as it enters the next flower it leaves some pollen on the upper surface of the valve, and thus cross-fertilization is effected.
There are cotton presses and ginning factories.
If double-bottomed defecators are used in sufficient number to allow an hour and a half to two hours for making each defecation, and if they are of a size which permits any one of them to be filled up by the cane-mill with juice in ten to twelve minutes, they will make as perfect a defecation as is obtainable by any known system; but their employment involves the expenditure of much high-pressure steam (as exhaust steam will not heat the juice quickly enough through the small surface of the hemispherical inner bottom), and also the use of filter presses for treating the scums. A great deal of skilled superintendence is also required, and first cost is comparatively large.
These scums are not worth passing through the filter presses, and are sent to the fields direct as manure.
The juice is then drawn off and pumped up to one of the double-bottomed defecators and redefecated, or, where juice-heaters have been used instead of defecators, the scums from the separators or subsiders are heated and forced through filter presses, the juice expressed going to the evaporators and the scum cakes formed in the filter presses to the fields as manure.
Apart from increased yield in sugar of good quality, we may sum up the advantages procurable from the use of Hatton defecators as follows: cold liming; heating gently to the temperature required to coagulate the albumen and not beyond it, whereby disturbance would ensue; the continuous separation of the scums; the gradual drying of the scums so as to make them ready for the fields, without carrying away juice or requiring treatment in filter presses; and the continuous supply of hot defecated juice to the evaporators, without the use of subsiding tanks or eliminators; and, finally, the saving in expenditure on plant, such as filter presses, &c., and wages.
Before beetroot had been brought to its present state of perfection, and while the factories for its manipulation were worked with hydraulic presses for squeezing the juice out of the pulp produced in the raperies, the cane sugar planter in the West Indies could easily hold his own, notwithstanding the artificial competition created and maintained by sugar bounties.
But hydraulic presses have now been abandoned, for the juice is universally obtained by diffusion, and the small slicers have gone out of use, because the large amount of pulp they produced in proportion to slices is not suitable for the diffusion process, in which evenly cut slices are required, which present a much greater surface with far less resistance to the diffusion water.
The whole is then passed through filter presses, the clear juice being run off for further treatment, while the carbonate of lime is obtained in cakes which are taken to the fields as manure.
The filter presses remain substantially unchanged, although many ingenious but slight alterations have been made in their details.
The juice, which has now become comparatively clear, is again treated with lime, and again passed through a saturator and filter presses, and comes out still clearer than before.
There are several factories for pressing cotton, and for cleaning coffee, oilcake presses, tanneries and saltpetre refineries.
There are several flour-mills, cotton-presses and a dairy farm.
After well washing with water, the slimes are roughly dried in bag-filters or filter-presses, and then treated with dilute sulphuric acid, the solution being heated by steam.
13) to the right, the cushion C (which is faced with india-rubber) presses the paper ribbon (shown in fig.
403), which might be of doubtful application, but also from the remains of olive presses and peculiarities in the local nomenclature.
Olivier introduced screw presses for striking coins, together with rolls for reducing the cast bars and machines for punching-out round disks from flattened sheets of metal, in Paris in 1553.
The coining presses now used are all modifications of the lever press invented by Uhlhorn of Grevenbroich near Cologne in 1839.
There are 19 presses and it is possible with these to strike between 700,000 and 800,000 pieces in an ordinary working day.
The presses FIG.
That layer C A E presses against and pushes forward the next layer and so on.
The very large printing trade of Leipzig encourages the manufacture of printing-presses in that city.
The " megalithic " monuments of Agia Phaneromeni 1 and Hala Sultan Teke near Larnaca may perhaps be early, like the Palestinian cromlechs; but the vaulted chamber of Agia Katrina near Enkomi seems to be Mycenaean or later; and the perforated monoliths at Ktima seem to belong to oil presses of uncertain but probably not prehistoric date.
As there is no preliminary crushing, the presses used for extracting the juice have to be of a powerful character.
Its magnitude is the product of the normal pressure or force which presses the rubbing surfaces together in~ a direction perpendicular to themselves into a specific constant already mentioned in 14, as the coefficient of friction, which depends on the nature and condition of the surfaces of the unguent, if any, with which they are covered.
Hospitals, orphanages, schools and an admirable college in Seoul have been founded, along with tri-lingual (Chinese, Korean and English) printing-presses; religious, historical and scientific works and much of the Bible have been translated into En-mun, and periodicals of an enlightened nature in the Korean script are also circulated.
Their presses confined their activities to the production of catechisms, martyrologies and handbooks in the native languages after the fashion of the presses of Mexico.
These seeds are for the most part pressed in India either in bullock presses or in oil-mills.
In addition to these and the cotton and jute mills there are indigo factories, rice mills, timber mills, coffee works, oil mills, iron and brass foundries, tile factories, printing presses, lac factories, silk mills, and paper mills.
They have olive presses and flour mills, and their own millstone quarries, even travelling into make lime, tiles, woodwork for the houses, domestic utensils and agricultural implements.
It is an important centre of trade, especially in raw cotton, and has cotton presses and the Krishna cotton mills.
When oxidation is complete the crude anthraquinone is separated in filter presses and heated with an excess of commercial oil of vitriol to 120° C., the various impurities present in the crude material being sulphonated and rendered soluble in water, whilst the anthraquinone is unaffected; it is then washed, to remove impurities, and dried.
A great deal of work is done in this way, though this sphere has also been invaded by the draw presses, whose output would seem incredible to those not familiar with the work.