The establishment of a presidio at Tucson in 1776 marks its beginning as a Spanish settlement.
Their own farms and settlements, save in the immediate vicinity of the presidio, were often plundered and abandoned, and such settlement as there was was confined to the Santa Cruz valley.
A presidio (Spanish military post) was established here in 1782, and a Franciscan mission, by Junipero Serra, about four years later.
On Alcatraz Island is the United States Prison, and on Goat Island the United States Naval School of the Pacific. The old Spanish " presidio " is now a United States military reservation, and another smaller one, the Fort Mason Government Reservation, is in the vicinity.
May be taken along the ocean front, through the Presidio, Golden Gate Park, and a series of handsome streets in the west end.
Some 200,000 camped in Golden Gate Park and 50,000 in the presidio military reservation.
The Government presidio or military reservation (1542 acres) is practically another city park, more favourably situated and of better land than Golden Gate Park, and better developed.
A Spanish presidio (military post), and the Franciscan mission of San Francisco de Asis, on the Laguna de los Dolores, were founded near the northern end of the peninsula in 1776.
In the second half of the century there was a presidio at Tubac (whose name first appears 1752) and some half-dozen pueblos de visita, including the Indian settlement of Tucson.
The presidio of San Antonio de Bexar and the mission of San Antonio de Valero were founded in 1718 under the direction of Martin de Alarc6n, governor of Coahuila.
In1835-1839" San Francisco " had an ayuntamiento (town-council), and the different municipal officers seem to have been located at the same or different times at the mission, the presidio, or at Yerba Buena; the name San Francisco being applied indifferently to all three settlements.
The Inquisition never had any jurisdiction whatever over the Indians; compulsory labour by the Indians was never legalized except on the missions, and the law was little violated; they were never compelled to work mines; of mining by the Indians for precious metals there is no evidence; nor by the Jesuits (expelled in 1767, after which their missions and other properties were held by the Franciscans), except to a small extent about the presidio of Tubac, although they did some prospecting.
Up to 1835 there were two settlements on the peninsula - one about the presidio, the other about the mission; the former lost importance after the practical abandonment of the presidio in 1836, the latter after the secularization of the mission, beginning in 1834.