Roman theologians generally reckon only seven orders, although, if we count the episcopate an order distinct from the presbyterate, the sum is not seven, but eight.
Either Egypt or Syria would satisfy this condition, and in favour of Syria is the fact that the presbyterate there was to a late date regarded as a rank rather than an office.
Besides the full functions of the presbyterate, or priesthood, bishops have the sole right (I) to confer holy orders, (2) to administer confirmation, (3) to prepare the holy oil, or chrism, (4) to consecrate sacred places or utensils (churches, churchyards, altars, &c.), (5) to give the benediction to abbots and abbesses, (6) to anoint kings.
To the years of his presbyterate and episcopate belong the great mass of homilies and commentaries, among which those On the Statues, and on Matthew, Romans and Corinthians, stand out preeminently.
But the candidature of this person, who had been deposed from the presbyterate under Leo IV., was indefensible.
This enlargement of the bishop's parish and multiplication of the chuches under his care led to a change in the functions of the presbyterate.