Curare, to take care of), properly a presbyter who has the cure of souls within a parish.
It is said to have been written by the Neapolitan arch-presbyter Leo, who was sent by Johannes and Marinus, dukes of Campania (941-965) to Constantinople, where he found his Greek original.
His position is one of great honour and influence, but he remains a simple presbyter, without any special rule or jurisdiction.
A second theory is contended for by Principal Campbell in his treatise on the eldership, and by others also, that there is no warrant in Scripture for the eldership as it exists in the Presbyterian Church; that the ruling elder is not, and is not designed to be, a counterpart of the New Testament elder; in other words, that he is not a presbyter, but only a layman chosen to represent the laity in the church courts and permitted to assist in the government of the church.
View hold that" in everything except training and the consequences of training the elder is the very same as the minister,"and they base their opinion on the fact that the terms" overseer "or" bishop," presbyter "and" elder,"are used interchangeably throughout the New Testament.
But apparently it soon became desirable and perhaps necessary to specialize the work of teaching by setting apart for that duty one presbyter who should withdraw from secular occupation and devote his whole time to the work of the ministry.
In 1537 he was invited to Denmark by Christian III., and remained five years in that country, organizing the church (though only a presbyter, he consecrated the new Danish bishops) and schools.
He set himself in opposition to Novatian, a presbyter of Rome, who advocated their permanent exclusion from the church; and it was his influence which guided the tolerant measures of the Carthaginian synods on the subject.
TYRANNIUS RUFINUS, presbyter and theologian, was born at or near Aquileia at the head of the Adriatic, probably between 340 an 345.
On his way to Greece (apparently in the year 230) Origen was ordained a presbyter in Palestine by his friends the bishops.
The Meletian schism was complicated, moreover, by the presence in the city of another anti-Arian sect, stricter adherents of the Homousian formula, maintaining the tradition of the deposed bishop Eustathius and governed at this time by the presbyter Paulinus.
He attained the position of presbyter in the church of Alexandria (Eus.
The words are as follows: - " This letter I sent through Clement the blessed presbyter, a man virtuous and tried, whom ye know and will come to know completely, who being here by the providence and guidance of the Ruler of all strengthened and increased the church of the Lord."
He was the son of a deacon, Calpurnius, and the grandson of a presbyter named Potitus.
These were written, according to Tertullian (De Baptismo, 17) by a presbyter of Asia, who was deposed from his office on account of his forgery.
17), a presbyter in Asia, who out of honour to Paul wrote the Acts, forging at the same time 3 Corinthians.
The word iriCrK07r03 or overseer may be of Gentile origin, just as presbyter may have been borrowed from the Jews.
There is strong proof that presbyter and episcopus are two names for the same office.
Thus St Ignatius in writing to the Romans never refers to any presiding bishop, and somewhat earlier Clement of Rome in his epistles to the Corinthians uses the terms presbyter and episcopus interchangeably.
250) decree that a confessor who has suffered torment for his adherence to the Christian faith should merit and obtain the rank of presbyter forthwith - " Immo confessio est ordinatio ejus."
The bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church, on the other hand, derive their orders from Thomas Coke, a presbyter of the Church of England, who in 1784 was ordained by John Wesley, assisted by two other presbyters, "superintendent" of the Methodist Society in America.
This version appears to be quite distinct from that used by the compiler of the chronicle of Zacharias, 6 and also from the version of " the 6th book of the select letters of Severus " which was made by Athanasius " presbyter of Nisibis " in 669 and has been edited by E.
An identical rite existed among the 12th century Cathars, and in the Celtic church of Gildas every presbyter was a Peter.
EUTYCHES (c. 380 - c. 456), a presbyter and archimandrite at Constantinople, first came into notice in A.D.
- Among those who had been present at Ephesus in support of Nestorius was Ibas, presbyter and head of the theological school of Edessa.
The first, by a bishop or presbyter whose name is not known, is addressed to Abircius bishop of Hierapolis, and was written in the fourteenth year after the death of Maximilla - i.e.
The objections of the Alogi were restated and maintained by the Roman presbyter Caius in his controversy with the Montanist Proclus (Eus.
The arguments of Dionysius were repeated by Eusebius, who ascribed the work to the presbyter John mentioned by Papias (Eus.
As regards the John mentioned in the Apocalypse, he is now identified by a majority of critics with John the Presbyter, and further the trend of criticism is in favour of transferring all the Johannine writings to him, or rather to his school in Asia Minor.2 For an independent discussion of the authorship of the Fourth Gospel, see JOHN, GOSPEL OF ST.
The Asiatic story then died away, but the name remained, and the royal presbyter was now assigned a locus in Ethiopia.
After this victory Presbyter John - for so he was wont to be styled - advanced to fight for the Church at Jerusalem; but when he arrived at the Tigris and found no means of transport for his army, he turned northward, as he had heard that the river in that quarter was frozen over in winter-time.
The objection raised by the Aquitanian presbyter Vigilantius (c. 400) to the belief that the souls of the martyrs to a certain extent clung to their ashes, and heard the prayers of those who approached them, appeared to his contemporaries to be frivolous;.
It is certain that he was settled in Carthage in the second half of 197, the date of his writing his Apologeticus and (shortly afterwards) his two books Ad nationes; we also know that he became a presbyter in Carthage and was married.
53): '.` Usque ad mediam aetatem presbyter fuit ecclesiae Africanae, invidia postea et conturneliis clericorum Romanae ecclesiae ad Montani dogma delapsus."
A Persian tradition says that he had previously been a Christian presbyter, but this is certainly incorrect.
Pretre), the contracted form of presbyter " (7rpE6j3brEpos, " elder "; see Presbyter), a name of office in the early Christian Church, already mentioned in the New Testament.
The reason of this will appear more clearly in the sequel; it is enough to observe at present that, before our English word was formed, the original idea of a presbyter had been overlaid with others derived from pre-Christian priesthoods, so that it is from these and not from the etymological force of the word that we must start in considering historically what a priest is.
It is sufficient to remark here that the presentation of the sacrifice of the mass came to be viewed as the essential priestly office, so that the Christian presbyter really was a sacerdos in the antique sense.
So long as each church had its own bishop the presbyters constituted simply his council, but with the growth of diocesan episcopacy it became the custom to put each congregation under the care of a particular presbyter, who performed within it most of the pastoral duties formerly discharged by the bishop himself.
As monk in the neighbouring monastery of Euprepius, and afterwards as presbyter, he became celebrated in the diocese for his asceticism, his orthodoxy and his eloquence; hostile critics, such as the church historian Socrates, allege that his arrogance and vanity were hardly less conspicuous.
From Antioch Nestorius had brought along with him to Constantinople a co-presbyter named Anastasius, who enjoyed his confidence and is called by Theophanes his "syncellus."
A few days afterwards (June 26th or 27th) John of Antioch arrived, and efforts were made by both parties to gain his ear; whether inclined or not to the cause of his former co-presbyter, he was naturally excited by the precipitancy with which Cyril had acted, and at a conciliabulum of forty-three bishops held in his lodgings shortly after his arrival he was induced by Candidian, the friend of Nestorius, to depose the bishops of Alexandria and Ephesus on the spot.