First premolar nearly as large as the second.
Nearly related is the extinct family Lophiodontidae (inclusive of the American Helaletidae), in which both the upper and lower first premolar may be absent, while the upper molars present a more rhinoceros-like form, owing to the lateral compression and consequent lengthening of the outer columns, of which the hinder is bent somewhat inwards and is more or less concave externally, thus forming a more complete outer wall.
UNGULATA, the name of an order of placental mammals in which the terminal joints of the toes are usually encased in solid hoofs or covered with broad hoof-like nails, while the molar (and not unfrequently some or all of the premolar) teeth have broad tuberculated crowns adapted for crushing vegetable substances.
It has also one premolar tooth less in the lower jaw.
The absence of a gap between the lower canine and first premolar and between the latter and the following tooth is regarded as an essentially tapir-like feature.
Lophiodochoerus apparently represents this stage in the European Lower Eocene; Isectolophus, of the American Middle Eocene, represents a distinct advance, the last upper premolar becoming molar-like, while a second species from the Upper Eocene is still more advanced; the third lobe is, however, retained in the last lower molar.
In America the family is represented by Heptodon, of the Middle Eocene, which differs from the early members of the tapir-stock in having a long gap between the lower canine and first premolar; the dentition is complete, and the upper premolars are simple.
With the exception of the first lower premolar, the dentit i on is complete; the incisors being normal, but the canine rudimentary, and the last upper molar distinctly triangular.
- Teeth of Upper Jaw of Opossum (Didelphys marsupialis), all of which are unchanged, except the third premolar, the place of which is occupied in the young animal by a molariform tooth, represented in the figure below the line of the other teeth.
The three pairs of molars in each jaw are, like the last premolar, quadritubercular oblong teeth.
The dentition normally comprises the typical series of 44 teeth, although in some instances the first premolar is wanting.
There is usually a short gap between the canine and first premolar; the upper molars are short-crowned and transitional between the bunodont (tubercular) and selenodont (crescentic) types, with two outer concave tubercles and two inner conical ones; while the lower molars are crescentic, with three lobes in the last of the series..
In the Hippoidea there is generally the full series of 44 teeth, but the first premolar, which is always small, is often deciduous or even absent in the lower or in both jaws.
The teeth of the molar series gradually increase in size and complexity from first to last, and are arranged in contiguous series, except that the first lower premolar is separated by an interval from the second.
I, c.i, m.; total 28 - the first permanent premolar having no predecessor.
Choeropotamus is a European Oligocene genus with bunodont molars which show a conspicuous basal cingulum in the lower dentition; the first premolar is absent.
4, 5, 6); and, with one exception, have rooted cheek-teeth, the premolar-formula being zr 1 The infra-orbital foramen is also narrower, and the tympanic bulla is cellular.
First upper premolar nearly as large as the second.
The Dipodinae, on the other hand, are leaping rodents, with the metatarsals elongated, a small upper premolar present or absent, and the crowns of the molars tall.
The least specialized genus is Zapus, containing the jumping-mice of North America, with one outlying Siberian species, in which the five metatarsals are free, as are also the cervical vertebrae, the small upper premolar being retained.
The premolar is very small, thus showing an approximation to the Myoidea, although in other respects Petromys appears to approximate to the Hystricidae.
Riggs, is the unusual development of the premolar to the exclusion of the posterior teeth.
The canine was like a premolar, and in contact with the first tooth of that series; and the cheek-teeth were short-crowned, with the premolar simpler than the molars, and a third lobe to the last lower tooth of the latter series.
Of these the first upper premolar is a simple tooth placed close behind the premaxilla and separated by a long gap from the two other teeth of the same series; while the lower incisors, of which the outermost is the largest, are directed partially forwards.
The isolated canine-like premolar which follows in the camels is not present.
Next to the latter is a curved, sub-erect canine, followed after an interval by an isolated minute and often deciduous simple conical premolar; then a contiguous series of one premolar and three molars, which differ from those of recent species of Camelus in having a small accessory column at the anterior outer edge.
Although it has the deciduous dentition, Mme Pavlow considers herself justified in referring the Kherson skull to the genus Procamelus previously known only from the Lower Pliocene or Upper Miocene strata of North America, and differing from modern camels, among other features, by the retention of a fuller series of premolar teeth.
The most characteristic dental feature is, however, the assumption of the form and function of a canine by the first lower premolar; the lower canine being incisor-like.
The last premolar and the molars have quadrate crowns, provided with two strong transverse ridges, or with four obtuse cusps.
- Skull and teeth of Bennett's Wallaby (Macropus ruficollis bennettii): i l, i 2, i 3, first, second and third upper incisors; pm, second premolar (the first having been already shed); m l, m 2, m 3, m4, last premolar and three molars.
The anterior premolar has been shed.
Distinctive feature of the genus is the great fore-and-aft length of the penultimate premolar in both jaws.
The genus agrees with Dorcopsis in the direction of the hair on the neck, but the muzzle is only partially hairy, and the elongation of the penultimate premolar is less.
As regards the teeth, canines are wanting, and the penultimate upper premolar is short, from before backwards, with a distinct ledge on the inner side.
Perhaps, however, the most interesting member of the whole group is the tiny musk-kangaroo (Hypsiprymnodon moschatus) of north-east Australia, which alone represents the sub-family Hypsiprymnodontinae, characterized by the presence of an opposable first toe on the hind-foot and the outward inclination of the penultimate upper premolar, as well by the small and feeble claws.
As the three molars and (almost invariably) the first premolar of the permanent series have no predecessors, the typical milk-dentition would be expressed as follows: di, dc i, dm 3 =28.
When there is a marked difference between the premolars and molars of the permanent dentition, the first milk-molar resembles a premolar, while the last has the characters of the posterior molar.
Hudsonius by the loss of the premolar, and has accordingly been referred to a sub-genus apart.
Mentary first premolar, Ma, Jugal or malar bone.
At about two and a half years the first premolar replaces its predecessor.
Its duct leaves the inferior anterior angle, at first descends a little, and runs forward under cover of the rounded inferior border of the lower jaw, then curves up along the anterior margin of the masseter muscle, becoming superficial, pierces the buccinator, and enters the mouth by a simple aperture opposite the middle of the crown of the third premolar tooth.
On the other hand, there are those who believe that the functional dentition (other than the replacing premolar and the molars) correspond to the milk-dentition of placentals, and that the rudimentary tooth-germs represent a "prelacteal" dentition.
Deciduous premolar preceded by a minute molariform tooth, which remains in place until the animal is nearly full grown.
Pair of large cutting incisors situated close to the middle line, and one great, cutting, compressed premolar, on each side above and below.
In the lower jaw the incisors and canines are directed straight forwards, and are of small size and nearly similar form; the function of the canine being discharged by the first premolar, which is larger than the other teeth of the same series.
Tapir Group. the Tapiroidea the dentition may be either the full 44, or lack the first premolar in the lower or in both jaws.
The incisors are chisel-shaped; and (unlike the early Hippoidea) there is no gap between the first premolar, when present, and the second.
First upper premolar with a triangular crown narrow in front owing to the absence of the anterior inner column.
The first lower premolar compressed in front; the others composed of a single pair of transverse crests, with a small anterior and posterior basal ridge.
The next stage is Helaletes, also of Middle Eocene age, in which the first lower premolar has disappeared, and the last two upper premolars have become molar-like.
In this group the incisors and canines are very variable in number and form; the lower canine being separated by only a short gap from the outer incisor (when present), but by a long one from the first premolar, which is in contact with the second.
The upper premolar and molar teeth are not alike, the former being single and the latter two-lobed; and the last lower molar of both first and second dentition is almost invariably threelobed.
Haringtoni, differs as regards colour in a remarkable manner from all other known members of the group. It is a medium-sized species of a pale creamy buff colour above, lighter beneath, and with a whitish tail, while it is further characterized by the absence of the first upper premolar, which shows that it is not an albino or pale variety.