The predicables, or heads of predication as it is analysed in relation to the provisional theory of definition that dialectic allows and requires.
A nominalist to the core, he held that definition and predication are either false or tautological.
On the other hand, in the Metaphysics, the distinction between inherence and predication disappears; and what is more, the relation of an attribute to a substance is regarded as so close that an attribute is merely the substance modified.
These theories are of varying value in proportion to their proximity to Aristotle's point that predication is about things, and to Mill's point that judgments and propositions are about things, not about ideas.
Predication, as Aristotle saw, is as various as the categories of being.
Among critical works are: Anatole Feugere, Bourdaloue, sa predication et son temps (Paris, 1874); Adrien Lezat, Bourdaloue, theologien et orateur (Paris, 1874); P. M.
Griselle, Bourdaloue, histoire critique de sa predication (2 vols., Paris, 1901), Sermons inedits; bibliographie, &c. (Paris, 1901), Deux sermons inedits sur le royaume de Dieu (Lille and Paris, 1904); Ferdinand Castets, Bourdaloue, la vie et la predication d'un religieux au X Vil e siecle, and La Revue Bourdaloue (Paris, 1902-1904); C. H.
KaT7 7 yopiaL: Categoriae: On simple expressions signifying different kinds of things and capable of predication [probably an early work of Aristotle, accepting species and genera as "secondary substances " in deference to Plato's teaching].
19; Abbe Lezat, De la predication sous Henri IV.
The symbolic logic, which confuses " is " with " is equal to," having introduced a particular kind of predicate into the copula, falls into the mistake of reducing all predication to the one category of the quantitative; whereas it is more often in the substantial, e.g.
Yet from the points of view alike of an absolute pluralism, of a flux, and of a formula of bare identity - and a fortiori with any blending of these principles sufficiently within the bounds of plausibility to find an exponent - all knowledge, because all predication of unity, in difference, must be held to be impossible.
This extreme of nominalism for which predication is impossible is, however, compromised by two concessions.
The development of a positive theory of predication has become quite crucial.
Upon this it bases a theory of predication, which, however, is compatible with more than one reading of the metaphysical import of the ideas.
Resultant determinate judgments, presumes of course Doivi the doctrine of the interpenetration of ideas laid down in the Sophistes as the basis of predication, but its use precedes the positive development of that formula, though not, save very vaguely, the exhibition of it, negatively, in the antinomies of the one and the many in the Parmenides.
(e) Back of Plato's illustration and explanation of predication and dialectical inference there lies not only the question of their metaphysical grounding in the interconnexion of ideas, but that of their epistemological resu presuppositions.
Aristotle made ten, all co-ordinate, to serve as " heads of predication " under which to collect distinct scraps of information respecting a subject, probably a man.
He was not indeed aware how deeply he had committed himself; otherwise he would have observed that his argument, if valid against the Many of the vulgar, was valid also against the One of Parmenides, with its plurality of attributes, as well as that, in the absence of a theory of predication, it was useless to speculate about knowledge and being.
For three-quarters of a century, then, philosophy was at a standstill; and, when in the second decade of the 4th century the pursuit of truth was resumed, it was plain that Zeno's paradox of predication must be disposed of before the problems which had occupied the earlier thinkers - the problem of knowledge and the problem of being - could be so much as attempted.
Again, when it presently appeared that the theory of the immanent idea was inconsistent with itself, and moreover inapplicable to explain predication except where the subject was a sensible thing, so that reconstruction became necessary, the Zenonian difficulty continued to demand and to receive Plato's best attention.
It would seem then that, not to Antisthenes only, but to Plato also, Zeno's paradox of predication was a substantial difficulty; and we shall be disposed to give Zeno credit accordingly for his perception of its importance.
For the paradox of predication, which he had used to disprove the existence of plurality, was virtually a denial of all speech and all thought, and thus led to a more comprehensive scepticism than that which sprang from the contemporary theories of sensation.
There is, however, a radical difference between the two systems. The standpoint of the Aristotelian classification is the predication of one universal concerning another.
The one in the many, the formula which lies at the base of the possibility of predication, is involved in the Socratic doctrine of general concepts or ideas.
The paradox of predication, that it seems to deny identity, or to deny difference, becomes a pons asinorum.
It is to be regarded as a propaedeutic, 12 which, although it is in contact with reality in and through the metaphysical import of the axioms, or again in the fact that the categories, though primarily taken as forms of predication, must also be regarded as kinds of being, is not directly concerned with object-reality, but with the determination for the thinking subject of what constitutes the knowledge correlative to being.
Vinet's Chrestomathie francaise (1829), his Etudes sur la litterature francaise au XIX me siècle (1849-51), and his Histoire de la litterature francaise au X VIII me siecle, together with his Etudes sur Pascal, Etudes sur les moralistes aux X VIme ei X VII me siecles, Histoire de la predication parmi les Reformes de France and other kindred works, gave evidence of a wide knowledge of literature, a sober and acute literary judgment and a distinguished faculty of appreciation.
Now, when without qualification he affirmed that the unlike thing cannot be like, nor the like thing unlike, he was on the high road to the doctrine maintained three-quarters of a century later by the Cynics, that no predication which is not identical is legitimate.