The categories then are names signifying things capable of becoming predicates in a proposition.
Primal Life, who is properly speaking the Mandaean god, has the same predicates as the primal spirit, and every prayer, as well as every section of the sacred books, begins by invoking him.
As has been said it classifies universals as predicates of individuals and thus involves the difficulties which gave rise to the controversy between realism and nominalism.
As we advance from the logic to the metaphysics and from that to his ontology, it becomes clear that the concepts are only " categories " or predicates of a reality lying outside of them, and there is an ultimate division between the world as the object or matter of thought and the thinking or moving principle which gives its life.
He arrives at it from a classification of categories, by which he here means " things stated in no combination " era KaTa pr)bEpiav avparro,c v XeyoµEva) or what we should call " names," capable of becoming predicates (KaT'gyopovpeva, Karnyopiac).
A distinction (chap. 2) is drawn between things which are predicates of a subject (Kae' U?oKEi b tevov) and things which inhere in a subject (iv U7roKEL ivC J); and, while universals are called predicates of a subject, things in a subordinate category, i.e.
Finding then that substances are real predicates, and supposing that in that case they must be species or genera, he could not avoid the conclusion that some substances are species or genera, which were therefore called by him " secondary substances," and by his Latin followers substantiae universales.
(2) Positive assertion of the doctrine that things are individual substances in the Categories, but with the admission that attributes sometimes inhere in substance without being predicates of it, and that universal species and genera are " secondary substances."
(3) Expansion of the doctrine that things are individual substances in the Metaphysics, coupled with the reduction of all attributes to predicates, and the direct denial of universal substances; but nevertheless calling the universal essence of a species of substances substance, because the individual essence of an individual substance really is that substance, and the universal essence of the whole species is supposed to be indivisible and therefore identical with the individual essence of any individual of the species.
We cannot write a history of the varied origin of logic, beyond putting the rudimentary logic of the proposition in the De Interpretatione before the less rudimentary theory of categories as significant names capable of becoming predicates in the Categories, and before the maturer analysis of the syllogism in the Analytics.
Things are substances (oioiam), each of which is separate individual (Xcopu rTOv, TO& TL, Kae' 'KaQTov) and is variously affected as quantified, qualified, related, active, passive and so forth, in categories of things which are attributes (ovy13€07paiTa), different from the category of substance, but real only as predicates belonging to some substance, and are in fact only the substance itself affected (avr6 it€irovObs).
In working out this process he supposes that reason throws into consciousness a priori categories, synthetic predicates a priori, or, as he also calls them, " dialectic percepts."
They rejected as an illegitimate interpolation the eternal subject of development, and, instead of one continuing God as the subject of all the predicates by which in the logic the absolute is defined, assumed only a series of ideas, products of philosophic activity.
Kant has a special use of the term for that part of the Metaphysic of Nature which considers motion and rest as predicates of a judgment about things.
No finite predicates can be applied to him; his mode of being cannot be determined by any category.
The Categories, or names signifying things which can become predicates; 2.
In judgments, and therefore in propositions, indefinite predicates are the rule, quantified predicates the exception.
Consequently, A E I 0 are the normal propositions with indefinite predicates; whereas propositions with quantified predicates are only occasional forms, which we should use whenever we require to think the quantity of the predicate, e.g.
Erdmann, again, has invented an induction from particular predicates to a totality of predicates which he calls " erganzende Induction, " giving as an example, " This body has the colour, extensibility and specific gravity of magnesium; therefore it is magnesium."
In seeking for a single material principle underlying the multiplicity of phenomena, the first nature-philosophers, Thales and the rest, did indeed raise the problem of the one and the many, the endeavour to answer which must at last lead to logic. But it is only from a point of view won by later speculation that it can be said that they sought to determine the predicates of the single subject-reality, or to establish the permanent subject of varied and varying predicates.'
Plato proceeds to explain by his principle of difference both privative and negative predicates, and also the possibility of false predication.
In these truths predicates are accepted or rejected by subjects, and therefore depend on the reflection of fact in Xoyot (propositions).
These are combinatory of parts, attaching or detaching predicates, and so involving 9 References such as are the result of subsequent editing and prove nothing.
Truth and error are about the individual and attach or detach predicates correctly and incorrectly.
The point of view is to be modified profoundly by what follows - by the doctrine of the class-concept behind the class, of the form or idea as the constitutive formula of a substance, or, again, by the requirement that an essential attribute must be grounded in the nature or essence of the substance of which it is predicated, and that such attributes alone are admissible predicates from the point of view of the strict ideal of science.
The development of a theory of the ground on which subjects claim their predicates and disown alien predicates could not be long postponed.
All the predicates that belong to it in its own nature.
These are predicates of the object known, ways of knowing it, rather than the object itself.
Propositions express in the last resort the relation of predicate or predicates to a subject, and this Leibnitz holds after considering the case of relational propositions where either term may hold the position of grammatical subject, A = B and the like.
Each contains all its predicates: and this is true not only in the case of truths of reason, which are necessary, and ultimately to be exhibited as coming under the law of contradiction, " or, what comes to the same thing, that of identity," but also in the case of truths of fact which are contingent, though a sufficient reason can be given for them which " inclines " without importing necessity.
Existent subjects, containing eternally all their successive predicates in the time-series, are substances, which when the problems connected with their activity, or dynamically speaking their force, have been resolved, demand - and supply - the metaphysic of the Monadology.
The two positions that a subject contains all its predicates and that all non-contingent propositions - i.e.
The Aristotelian formula is " merely the expression, formally expanded and complete, of the truth already embodied in disjunctive judgment, namely, that every S which is a specific form of M possesses as its predicate a particular:modification of each of the universal predicates of M to the exclusion of the rest."
Wollen ist Ursein (will is primal being); and to this alone apply the predicates fathomless, eternal, independent of time, self-affirming."
Ritschl 3 even speaks of the Reformed as teaching Kenosis in the modern sense; but it is to be feared they rather taught alternately the manhood and the Godhead than made a serious effort to show the compatibility of divine and human predicates in one person.
2 The human predicates are not held to modify the Divine nature, except by modern Kenoticists, who therefore, when they are Lutherans, claim to be completing Luther's theory.
7, they teach, in different forms, that the Son of God became a man under human limitations at conception or birth, and resumed divine predicates at His exaltation.
Similarly with such predicates as great, just; they involve a certain greatness and justice.
When we apply predicates to the sense-manifold regarded in isolation, we make that which is only a factor in the experience of objects into a separate, independent object, and use our predicates transcendently.
Formal logic thus yields to Kant the list of the general notions, pure intellectual predicates, or categories, through which alone experience is possible for a conscious subject.