Thus Jansen's theories of conversion melt into predestination; although, in doing so, they somewhat modify its grimness.
Against the Calvinists the synod of 1672 therefore aimed its rejection of unconditional predestination and of justification by faith alone, also its advocacy of what are substantially the Roman doctrines of transubstantiation and of purgatory; the Oriental hostility to Calvinism had been fanned by the Jesuits.
He had embraced the Motazilite doctrine about free will and predestination, and was in particular shocked at the opinion which had spread among the Moslem doctors that the Koran was the uncreated word of God.
Sikhism mainly differs from Christianity in that it inculcates the transmigration of the soul, and adopts a belief in predestination, which is universal in the East.
He did not minutely analyse the doctrine of predestination as Luther, Calvin and Zwingli did, contenting himself with the summary "Our Salvation is of God, our perdition of ourselves."
He denied that foreknowledge or predestination as temporal relations could be properly predicated of God as eternal; he described sin and its consequences as negations, neither caused by nor known to God; he maintained that as evil is only a stage in the development of good, there will ultimately be a universal return to God.
In 1634 he published his Traite de la predestination, in which he tried to mitigate the harsh features of predestination by his "Universalismus hypotheticus."
For the history of the free-will controversy see the articles, Will, Predestination (for the theological problems), Ethics.
While retained in the creeds of several denominations, in the public teaching of the churches the doctrine of predestination has lost its place and power.
Founded by a bishop of Ypres on the doctrine of predestination, Louis and growing by persecution, it had speedily recruited xiv.
The higher a man stands on the social ladder, the more people he is connected with and the more power he has over others, the more evident is the predestination and inevitability of his every action.
In the Labyrinth (dedicated to Queen Elizabeth of England), a discussion of the freedom of the will, he covertly assailed the Calvinistic doctrine of predestination, and showed that his views were tinged with Socinianism.
He had won laurels in a public disputation at Augsburg in 1514, when he had defended the lawfulness of putting out capital at interest; again at Bologna in 1515, on the same subject and on the question of predestination; and these triumphs had been repeated at Vienna in 1516.
Arminius "sought to make election dependent upon faith, whilst they sought to enforce absolute predestination as the rule of faith, according to which the whole Scriptures are to be interpreted" (J.
These show that he took part in all the great controversies on predestination and Arminianism which then so agitated and harassed all Europe.
On the other hand there were movements, such as the Waldensian, the Wycliffite and Hussite,which are often described as "reformations anticipating the Reformation" which "set out from the Augustinian conception of the Church, but took exception to the development of the conception," and were pronounced by the medieval church as heretical for (1) "contesting the hierarchical gradation of the priestly order; or (2) giving to the religious idea of the Church implied in the thought of predestination a place superior to the conception of the empirical Church; or (3) applying to the priests, and thereby to the authorities of the Church, the test of the law of God, before admitting their right to exercise, as holding the keys, the power of binding and loosing" (Harnack's History of Dogma, vi.
Although they surrendered transubstantiation, the loss of one mystery was amply compensated by the stupendous doctrines of original sin, redemption, faith, grace and predestination upon which they founded their theory of salvation.
He always made it clear that the ideal philosophy was Christocentric: he said that Reformed theology must "`Christologize ' predestination and decrees, regeneration and sanctification, the doctrine of the Church, and the whole of the Eschatology."
In these they reacted against both the supralapsarian and the infralapsarian developments of the doctrine of predestination and combated the irresistibility of grace; they held that Christ died for all men and not only for the elect, and were not sure that the elect might not fall from grace.
Van Oppenraij, La Predestination dans l'Eglise reformee des Pays-Bas depuis l'origine jusqu'au synode national de Dordrecht (Louvain, 1906).
His ecclesiastical career began somewhat unpromisingly, for he was censured by Archbishop Whitgift for Romanist tendencies in a sermon which he preached against predestination in 1584.
But the controversy about predestination, which, in the 9th century, Hincmar and Hrabanus fought out with the monk Gottschalk of Fulda, as well as the discussions that arose from the definition of the doctrine of transubstantiation of Radbert, enable us to gauge the intellectual energy with which theological problems were once more being handled.
These were: (1) that the divine decree of predestination is conditional, not absolute; (2) that the Atonement is in intention 'universal; (3) that man cannot of himself exercise a saving faith; (4) that though the grace of God is a necessary condition of human effort it does not act irresistibly in man; (5) that believers are able to resist sin but are not beyond the possibility of falling from grace.
Instead of the subtle Catholic theories concerning divine predestination and human freedom, and instead of a difficult theodicaea, it offered an exceedingly simple conception of sin and goodness.
Thus in 1907 at the Centenary Conference in Shanghai, when many topics were discussed centring in the question of the native Chinese Church, a general declaration of faith and purpose was adopted, which, after setting out the things held in common, proceeded, " We frankly recognize that we differ as to methods of administration and of church government; that some among us differ from others as to the administration of baptism; and that there are some differences as to the statement of the doctrine of predestination, or the election of grsce.
Praedestinare, to determine beforehand; from the root sta, as in stare, stand), a theological term used in three senses: (I) God's unchangeable decision from eternity of all that is to be; (2) God's destination of men to everlasting happiness or misery; (3) God's appointment unto life or "election" (the appointment unto death being called "reprobation," and the term "foreordination" being preferred to "predestination" in regard to it).
In Islam the orthodox theology teaches an absolute predestination, and yet some teachers hold men responsible for the moral character of their acts.
Duns Scotus leaned toward Semi-Pelagianism, which rejected the doctrine of predestination, and maintained a co-operation of freedom and grace.
Later evangelicalism in the English-speaking lands gives up belief in predestination, or at least, with very few exceptions, holds it less strongly.
Of the controversies in which he embarked, one of the most important was that in which he defended his doctrine concerning predestination and election.
At the instance of Pippin, Boniface secured Adalbert's condemnation at the synod of Soissons in 744; but he, and Clement, a Scottish missionary and a heretic on predestination, continued to find followers in spite of legate, council and pope, for three or four years more.
He adhered firmly to the Augustinian doctrine of Predestination, and on the 30th of May 1703 he was arrested at Brussels at the instance of the archbishop of Malines, and ordered to subscribe the condemnation of the five sentences of Jansen.
- On Predestination: an Answer to an Anabaptist (London, 1591).
It was an attempt to reconcile, in words at least, the Augustinian doctrines of predestination and grace with the Semipelagianism which, as shown by the recent condemnation of Baius, had become prevalent in the Roman Catholic Church.
Molina tried to reconcile the doctrine of predestination with the freedom of the human will by saying that the predestination is consequent upon God's foreknowledge of the free determination of man's will, which is therefore in no way affected by the fact of such predestination.
Like all the Reformers, he was strictly Augustinian in theology, but he dwelt chiefly on the positive side of predestination - the election to salvation - and he insisted upon the salvation of infants and of the pious heathen.
In the controversy about election, when appealed to by Charles the Bald, Ratramnus wrote two books De praedestinatione Dei, in which he maintained the doctrine of a twofold predestination; nor did the fate of Gottschalk deter him from supporting his view against Hincmar as to the orthodoxy of the expression "trina Deitas."
The doctrine of Augustine was revived in the 9th century by Gottschalk, who taught that God's passing over the lost meant their predestination to punishment.
And the Buddhist adaptation of it, avoiding some of the difficulties common to it and to the allied European theories of fate and predestination, tries to explain the weight of the universe in its action on the individual, the heavy hand of the immeasurable past we cannot escape, the close connexion between all forms of life, and the mysteries of inherited character.
But, further, every attempt to think clearly what those relations are, what we really mean, if we talk of a fixed order of events, forces upon us the necessity of thinking also that the different things which stand in relations or the different phases which follow each other cannot be merely externally strung together or moved about by some indefinable external power, in the form of some predestination or inexorable fate.
After giving this account of themselves they ask for information about several points in a way which shows the exigencies of a rude and isolated society, and finally they say that they have been much disturbed by the Lutheran teaching about freewill and predestination, for they had held that men did good works through natural virtue stimulated by God's grace, and they thought of predestination in no other way than as a part of God's foreknowledge.