Praeoral ciliated ring, or prototroch.
Dam, Muscle from carapace to a praeoral entosclerite.
The praeoral portion (lower in fig.
The larva swims by a ri ig of cilia, which corresponds with the praeoral circlet of a Trochosphere.
In the centre of the praeoral lobe is a tuft of cilia.
A recently described species, Dolichorhynchus indicus, characterized by the great length of the praeoral lobe or snout, has been dredged in the Indian Ocean.
A, Oral tentacles (28 to 32 in full-grown animals, 20 to 24 in half-grown specimens); B, praeoral hood or praeoral epipleur; C, plicated ventral surface of atrial chamber; D l, D 17, D26, gonads, twenty-six pairs, coincident with myotomes io to 36; E, metapleur or lateral ridge on atrial epipleur; F, atripore, coincident with myotome 36; G', G ' 5, G34, double ventral fin rays, extending from myotomes 37 to 52, but having no numerical relation to them; H, position of anus, between myotomes 51 and 52; I, notochord, projecting beyond myotomes; K7, K27, K62, myotomes or muscular segments of body-wall, 62 in number; L '°°, L230, L253, dorsal fin rays, about 250 in number, the hard substance of the ray being absent at the extreme ends of the body (these have no constant numerical relation to the myomeres); M, notochord as seen through the transparent myotomes, the thin double-lined spaces being the connective-tissue septa and the broader spaces the muscular tissue of the myotomes; N, position of brown funnel of left side (atrio-coelomic canal); 0, nerve tube resting on notochord.
(4) Section taken transversely through praeoral region near termination of nerve tube.
Blood-vessel); i, a symmetrical epipleura of praeoral hood.
The cephalic region includes the rostrum or praeoral [[Right Fig]].
There are two pairs of specialized cerebral nerves innervating the praeoral lobe, and provided with peripheral ganglia placed near the termination of the smaller branches.
- anp, Anterior neural pore; be, rudiment of buccal skeleton; c, cilia; cb, ciliated band; cc, ciliated groove; cm, cilia at margin of mouth; gl, external opening of club-shaped gland; Hn, Hatschek's nephridium; lm, left metapleur; n, notochord; pp, praeoral pit; ps, primary gill-slits, I, 5, and 13; rm, right metapleur showing through.
- a, Atrium; al, alimentary canal; y blood-vessel; cv, cerebral vesicle; df, dorsal section of myocoel (= fin spaces); e, " eyespot"; end, endostyle; gl, club-shaped gland; lm, edge of left metapleur; m, lower edge of mouth; n, notochord; nt, pigmented nerve tube; ps, primary gill-slits, I, 9, and 14; rc, renal cells on atrial floor; rm, edge of right metapleur; so, sense organ opening into praeoral pit; ss, thickenings, the rudiments of the row of secondary gill-slits.
This becomes divided into two, the right half forming the cavity of the rostrum, while the left acquires an opening to the exterior, and forms the praeoral pit of the larva, which subsequently gives rise to special ciliated tracts in the vestibule of the mouth mentioned above.
The mouth (o) is in front of the tentacles, on the ventral side, and is overhung by a mobile praeoral hood, in which is the principal part of the nervous system.
Even if it be admitted that the postseptal space may be the metasomatic cavity, the praeseptal space can hardly be regarded as coelomic in nature, since it is in continuity with the vascular system; while Masterman's conclusion that the cavity of the praeoral hood (the supposed proboscis-cavity) is separated from that of the supposed collar has received no confirmation.
Between the tentacles and the praeoral hood, is really a collar the coelom of which develops relatively late.
The epistome of the adult Phoronis cannot well be the proboscis since its cavity is continuous with the lophophoral coelom, and because the praeoral hood of Actinotrocha is entirely lost at the metamorphosis.
Since the proboscis is a purely larval organ in this genus, it may be supposed that the coelomic space which properly belongs to it fails to develop, but that the praeoral hood itself is none the less the morphological representative of the proboscis.
The first to appear are the antennae, into which the praeoral somites are prolonged.
At, Antenna; d, dorsal projection; p.s., praeoral somite.
They form the somites of the praeoral lobes.
The praeoral somite develops the rudiment of a nephridium, but eventually entirely disappears.