Here he postulates force and mind as emanating from original matter - a materialistic monism.
Kant swept away, so far as his influence extended, such " dogmatic metaphysics " and the old-fashioned theism which it constituted or included; but Kant himself introduced, in his own more sceptical yet also more moral type of theistic doctrine, a new trichotomy - God, Freedom, Immortality, the three " postulates " of the practical reason."
Wherever moral postulates make their presence felt, Butler's doctrine of man, as of God, leaps into new vigour.
And the God he postulates is brought in ex machina like the God of the old Design argument in its roughest popular form.
(h) It has been shown above how the animistic creed postulates the existence of all kinds of local spirits, which are sometimes tied to their habitats, sometimes free to wander.
Occasio, an event), in philosophy, a term applied to that theory of the relation between matter and mind which postulates the intervention of God to bring about in the one a change which corresponds to a similar change in the other.
The parasitic hypothesis postulates the invasion of a parasite from without, thus making a new growth an infective process.
He has, indeed, described in graphic terms the greatest of the more superficial changes he underwent; how he had " carried into logical and ethical problems the maxims and postulates of physical knowledge," and had moved within the narrow lines drawn by the philosophical instructions of the class-room " interpreting human phenomena by the analogy of external nature "; how he served in willing captivity " the ` empirical ' and ` necessarian ' mode of thought," even though " shocked " by the dogmatism and acrid humours " of certain distinguished representatives "; 1 and how in a period of " second education " at Berlin, " mainly under the admirable guidance of Professor Trendelenburg," he experienced " a new intellectual birth" which " was essentially the gift of fresh conceptions, the unsealing of hidden openings of self-consciousness, with unmeasured corridors and sacred halls behind; and, once gained, was more or less available throughout the history of philosophy, and lifted the darkness from the pages of Kant and even Hegel."
And a choenix of wheat Verse II postulates either a Vespasianic or Domitianic date:" And the beast that was, and is not, is himself also an eighth, and is of the seven; and he goeth into perdition."In verse 10 it is stated that five of the seven had fallen," the one is and another is not yet come, and when he cometh he must continue a little while."If we reckon from Augustine and omit Galba, Otho and Vitellius, each of whom reigned only a few months, we arrive at Vespasian.
Yet, whilst such latent postulates warped his view of things, they did not entirely determine his method.
" Nutation, the only form of oscillation imagined by Bradley, postulates that while the earth's C A FIG.
Kant first deduced that from the experience of mental phenomena all logical use of reason is limited to mental phenomena, and then maintained that to explain moral responsibility practical reason postulates the existence of real noumena.
Fichte thus transformed the transcendental idealism of Kant by identifying the thing with the object, and by interpreting noumenon, not in Kant's sense of something which speculative reason conceives and practical reason postulates to exist in accordance with the idea, but in the new meaning of a thought, a product of reason.
This modification was the beginning of a gradual lessening of the antithesis of a priori to a posteriori, until at last the a priori forms of Kant have been transmuted into " auxiliary conceptions," or " postulates of experience."
At the same time, in spite of his sympathy with the whole development of idealism since Kant, which leads him to reject the thing in itself, to modify a priorism, and to stop at transcendent " ideals," without postulates of practical reason, he nevertheless has so much sympathy with Kant's Kritik as on its theories of sense and understanding to build up a system of phenomenalism, according to which knowledge begins and ends with ideas, and finally on its theory of pure reason to accord to reason a power of logically forming an " ideal " of God as ground of the moral " ideal " of humanity - though without any power of logically inferring any corresponding reality.
Thus Xenophanes for the first time postulates a supreme God whose 2 Strictly, pantheism is to identify the universe with God, while the term "pancosmism" (rap, Kovµos, the universe) has frequently been used for the identification of God with the universe.
A similar metaphysic from a different starting-point is found in Heraclitus, who postulates behind the perpetually changing universe of phenomena a One which remains.
Such a view is essential to any theistic view of the universe which postulates God as the Creator, omniscient and all-good.
Such an inference is, however, clearly at variance with the whole doctrine of sin, repentance and the atonement, as also with that of eternal reward and punishment, which postulates a real measure of human responsibility.
The fundamental postulates of Epicureanism are atoms and the void (iiroya Kai Kevov).
The obvious way of avoiding the scepticism into which rationalism is thus driven is to revise the assumptions about the nature and postulates of truth which lead to it.
It is further pointed out that this procedure is quite consonant with the practice of science with regard to its axioms. Originally these are always postulates which have to be assumed before they can be proved, and thus in a way "make" the evidence which confirms them.
Schiller, in "Axioms as Postulates" (in Personal Idealism, ed.
Here Sir William Hamilton did a real service to logic in pointing out that " Logic postulates to be allowed to state explicitly in language all that is implicitly contained in the thought."
In the " dialectical " dialogues the question of method and of the justification of its postulates attains at least a like prominence with the ostensible subject matter.
The ideal of science or demonstrative knowledge is to exhibit as flowing from the definitions and postulates of a science, from its special principles, by the help only of axioms or principles common to all knowledge, and these not as premises but as guiding rules, all the properties of the subject-matter, i.e.
The definitions of their subjects and the postulates of the existence of these.
There remain, then, primary definitions and the postulates of their realization, and the axioms or common principles, " which he must needs have who is to reach any knowledge."
Once more, it would be possible to forget that Mill's ultimate laws or axioms are not in his view intuitions, nor forms constitutive of the rational order, nor postulates of all rational construction, were it not that he has made the endeavour to establish them on associationist lines.
Indefinable ideas, with primary principles of another kind - axioms, and postulates that neither need nor admit of proof.
He postulates his unity in senses and at stages in which it is inadmissible, and so supplies only a schema of relations otherwise won, a view supported by the way in which he injects certain determinations in the process, e.g.
His solution, within the Kantian circle of ideas, was that such principles as the Kantian principle of causality were justified as " postulates of the endeavour after complete knowledge."
The simple fact at the bottom of the controversy is that in all empirical knowledge there is an intellectual element, without which there is no correlation of empirical data, and every judgment, however simple, postulates a correlation of some sort if only that between the predicate and its contradictory.
The same author postulates an Arctic continent, bordering upon northern Europe, Greenland and North America; an African-Brazilian continent across the present south Atlantic, and a marine communication between Australia and India, where the faunas have much in common.
The laws of equilibrium are, it is true, necessaril~ included as a particular case under those of motion; but ther is no real inconvenience in formulating as the basis of static a few provisional postulates which are afterwards seen to b comprehended in a more general scheme.
It is to be noticed, moreover, that all available tests apply only to the scheme as a whole; owing to the complexity of phenomena we cannot submit any one of its postulates to verification apart from the rest.
Metaphysical dualism postulates the eternal coexistence of mind and matter, as opposed to monism both idealistic and materialistic. Two forms of this dualism are held.
In the domain of morals, dualism postulates the separate existence of Good and Evil, as principles of existence.
(3) No such Babylonian account as Jensen postulates can be indicated.
But the publication of Appearance and Reality by the same author marked a great advance in philosophical criticism of ethical postulates, and a growing dissatisfaction with current reconciliations between moral first principles and the conclusions of metaphysics.
The combination of the two postulates leads to a complication.
If we also assume the ratio of the current to the heat-flow to be the same in both postulates, we have a = TB, whence 0 2 = kr/T.
Schuppe, therefore, postulates a general consciousness (Bewusstsein uberhaupt).
Thus a hypothesis may be ruled out by principles or postulates without any reference to the concrete facts which belong to that division of the subject to explain which the hypothesis is formulated.
To this theory the objection is raised that it is but a theory; that it is unsupported by any convincing evidence; and that the process which it postulates, that, namely, of the transformation of the gods into heroes by the popular imagination, is contrary to all that we know of the fate of dethroned deities, who are apt to live on in fairy stories in very unheroic guise.
Under the dynamical principles, the general modes in which the existence of objects are determined, fall the analogies of experience, or general rules according to which the existence of objects in relation to one another can be determined, and the postulates of experience, the general rules according to which the existence of objects for us or our own subjective existence can be determined.
The postulates of experience are general expressions of the significance of existence in the experience of a conscious subject.
These conditions, the postulates of practical reason, are the concrete expressions of the three transcendental ideas, and in them we have the full significance of the ideas for reason.
1855-1862) he seeks, by idealizing all the Christian dogmas, to reduce them to natural postulates of reason or conscience.