It presumes the reality of its sub ject in a postulate of existence.
The postulate of an Evil Being arises from the difficulty, at all times acutely felt by a certain type of mind, of reconciling the existence of evil with the divine attributes of perfect goodness, full knowledge and infinite power.
It is of course a postulate that all truths harmonize, but to give the harmonious whole in a projection in one plane is an undertaking whose adequacy in one sense involves an inadequacy in another.
The transmutation of Mill's induction of inductions into a postulate is an advance of which the psychological school of logicians have not been slow to make use.
Unfortunately, from the tenable theory that the intensity of a sensation increases by definite additions of stimulus, Fechner was led on to postulate a unit of sensation, so that any sensation s might be regarded as composed of n units.
I Thus again we are obliged to postulate a date not earlier than A.D.
The second postulate was a sound financial basis, which he expected the wealth of France to supply in the shape of subsidies to be spent on armaments.
That science must be left free to determine the aims of her investigation, to select and apply her own methods, and to publish the results of her researches without restraint, is a postulate which Ultramontanism either cannot understand or treats with indifference, for it regards as strange and incredible the fundamental law governing all scientific research - that there is for it no higher aim than the discovery of the truth.
The discovery of definite laws in this region might at first sight seem hopeless; but the argument rests on an implied postulate of stability and continuity of constitution of material substances, so that after a cycle of transformations we expect to recover them again as they were originally - on the postulate, in fact, that we do not expect them to melt out of organized existence in our hands.
Not that men should or can carry this logical postulate out in ordinary life; but it is necessary in the logical analysis of judgments, and yet logicians neglect it.
Beneath Hamilton's postulate there is a deeper principle of logic - _A rational being thinks only to the point, and speaks only to understand and be understood.
Lotze's procedure is, indeed, analogous to the way in which, in his philosophy of nature, he starts from a plurality of real beings, but by means of a reductive movement, an application of Kant's transcendental method, arrives at the postulate or fact of a law of their reciprocal action which calls for a monistic and idealist interpretation.
Asserting that Ideas alone really exist, he yet found it necessary to postulate a second principle of not-being, the groundwork of sensuous existence and of imperfection and evil.
Spinoza realized the flaw in the division and preferred to postulate behind mind and matter a single substance (unica substantia) while Leibnitz explained the universe as a harmony of spiritual or semispiritual principles.
Thus in the true idea of things there is no irreducible residuum of matter: mind is the Alpha and Omega, at once the initial postulate and the final truth of reality.
Probably it would be impossible to unite spiritualists in any creed, which,, besides the generally accepted belief in God and immortality, should postulate more than the progress of the spirit after death, and the power of some of the dead to communicate with the living by means of mediums.
But there is much uncertainty as to the mechanism of the process; some authors hold that the soluble chloride is first formed, while others postulate the intervention of a soluble aurate.
That this is so appears most clearly in the fact that with Amos the prophecy of restoration appears only in a few verses at the end of his book, and in the still more instructive fact that neither he nor Hosea attempts to explain how the restoration which they accept as a postulate of faith is to be historically realized.
In the succeeding three definitions the centre, diameter and the semicircle are defined, while the third postulate of the same book demands the possibility of describing a circle for every " centre " and " distance."
Its consistency, as deduced by Lange, was to reduce all use of reason, speculative and practical, to its logical use of proceeding from the assumed mental data of outer and inner sense, arranged a priori, to mental phenomena of experience, beyond which we can conceive ideas but postulate nothing.
The fact that at most places the morning shows a marked decay of auroral frequency and intensity as compared to the evening, the maximum preceding midnight by several hours, is certainly favourable to theories which postulate ionization of the atmosphere by some cause or other emanating from the sun.
Again the Finnish languages spoken in various parts of Russia and more or less allied to Magyar must have spread gradually westwards from the Urals, and their development and diffusion seem to postulate a long period (for the history of the Finns shows that they were not mobile like the Turks and Mongols), so that the ancestral language from which spring Finnish and Magyar can hardly have been brought across Asia after the Christian era.
This is an immediate consequence of the fundamental postulate, in either of the forms above stated, since the internal forces do on the whole no work.
Manichaeism) which were influenced by it, postulate two contending deities Ormuzd and Ahriman (Good and Evil), which war against one another in influencing the conduct of men.
Anaxagoras was the first to postulate the existence of Reason (vows) as the source of change and progress.
The phenomena of light had compelled physicists to postulate a space-filling medium, to which the name ether had been given, and Henry and Faraday had long previously suggested the idea of an electromagnetic medium.
Along a different line of thought the Iranian teachers, beholding the world divided between hostile powers, demanded, as the fundamental postulate of religion, the victory of the good.
To postulate different substances as underlying the different forces of nature would have been to surrender the fundamental thought of the system.
It is an exaggeration of the theory which makes it an explanation of all human life, but the whole science of dynamic sociology rests upon the postulate of Marx.
The fundamental metaphysical postulate that being and God are ultimately identical remained, however, the philosophical basis of all his thinking, and reverence for this being as the supreme good remained the fundamental disposition of his mind.
He never conceded the postulate, because, though he knew France better than anybody in England except Arthur Young, he did not know her condition well enough.
It is most unlikely that wings have been acquired independently by various orders of Hexapoda, and if we regard the Thysanura as the slightly modified representatives of a primitively wingless stock, we must postulate the acquisition of wings by some early offshoot of that stock, an offshoot whence the whole group of the Pterygota took its rise.
The respiratory current of water is therefore conducted to the exterior by different means from that adopted by Amphioxus, and this difference is so great that the theory which seeks to explain it has to postulate radical changes of structure, function and topography.
The emenders postulate mechanical errors in the writing of the figures, but, equally with those who accept them, regard the calculations of the native scribes as above reproach.
One is the exaggeration of the possibilities of resolution into separate elements that is due to the acceptance of the postulate of an alphabet of nature.
Its effect upon logic is rather to be seen in the rethinking of the traditional body of logical doctrine in the light of an absolute presupposed as ideal, with the postulate that a regulative ideal must ultimately exhibit itself as constitutive, the justification of the postulate being held to lie in the coherence and all-inclusiveness of the result.
With this coheres his dictum, with its far-reaching consequences for the philosophy of induction, that " the logical justification of the inductive process rests upon the fact that it is an inevitable postulate of our effort after knowledge.that the given is necessary, and can be known as proceeding from its grounds according to universal laws."
The fundamental postulate of this part of our subject is that the two forces acting on a particle may be compounded by the parallelogram rule.
When we pass from the consideration of discrete particles to that of continuous distributions of matter, we require some physical postulate over and above what is contained in the Laws of Motion, in their original formulation.
This additional postulate may be introduced under various forms. One plan is to assume that any body whatever may be treated as if it were composed of material particles, i.e.
If we integrate with respect to I between fixed limits, we obtain the principles of linear and angular momentum in the form previously given, Hence, whichever form of postulate we adopt, we are led to the principles of linear and angular momentum, which form in fact the basis of all our subsequent work.
On the other hand is a hypothetical dualism, according to which it is held that mind cannot bridge over the chasm so far as to know matter in itself, though it is compelled by its own laws of cause and effect to postulate matter as the origin, if not the motive cause, of its sensations.
Hence the theory is a kind of monism, inasmuch as it confessedly does not assert the existence of matter save as an intellectual postulate for the thinking mind.
And, as nature reveals no great care for this postulate, we must appeal away beyond nature to a power who shall make good men at the last as happy as they deserve to be.
The more Spinozistic side of Leibnitz's thought - God as Monad of Monads - is a theistic postulate if hardly a theistic proof.
Lowry and Armstrong represent these compounds by the following spatial formulae which postulate a y-oxidic structure, and 5 asymmetric carbon atoms, i.e.
It was perhaps the facility with which a pillar of stone or wood can be turned into an image by painting or sculpturing on it eyes, ears, mouth, marks of sex and so on, which led anthropologists of an earlier generation to postulate such a law of development; but facts do not bear it out.
Religion itself is the belief in this moral law as divine, and such belief is a practical postulate, necessary in order to add force to the law.
In like manner, after the French mathematicians had attempted, with more or less ingenuity, to construct a theory of elastic solids from the hypothesis that they consist of atoms in equilibrium under the action of their mutual forces, Stokes and others showed that all the results of this hypothesis, so far at least as they agreed with facts, might be deduced from the postulate that elastic bodies exist, and from the hypothesis that the smallest portions into which we can divide them are sensibly homogeneous.
The first postulate of such a policy was peace, especially peace with Denmark's most dangerous neighbour, Sweden.
2 Basing the investigation on the same criterion of resolution as in the case of narrow slits, we postulate for both narrow and wide slits that two lines are resolved when the intensity of the combined image falls to a value of o 8ro in the centre between the lines, the intensity at the maxima being unity.
But what is a postulate of practical reason to explain moral responsibility except a logical use of reason ?
Reason, according to Wundt, is like pure reason according to Kant; except that Wundt, receiving Kantism through NeoKantism, thinks that reason arrives at " ideals " not a priori, but by the logical process of ground and consequent, and, having abolished the thing in itself, will not follow Kant in his inconsequent passage from pure to practical reason in order to postulate a reality corresponding to " ideals " beyond experience.
Secondly: from the discrepancy between the pure abstract law of self-consistent reason and the pleasuretinged nature of man, we infer or postulate Immortality.
Or, to state this as a theistic argument: we are bound to postulate a God who overrules Critique nature for moral ends.
Postulate a Vespasianic date as the earliest admissible, and, finally, the composition of the book in its present form cannot be placed before the closing years of Domitian.
It may perhaps be fairly said that materialism is at present a necessary methodological postulate of natural-scientific inquiry.