31.-Shell of Crucibulum, seen coiled,but slightly in from below so as to show the inner whorl curved posteriorly; b, concealed by the cap-like outer whorl a.
The orbito-sphenoids diverge only posteriorly, otherwise they are practically unpaired and form the median interorbital septum, which is very large in correlation with the extraordinary size of the eyeballs.
An teriorly and posteriorly separate ganglia have fused.
Close to this the small renal organ (i, mediad) and the larger renal organ (k, to the right and posteriorly) are seen, also the pericardium (1) and a coil of the intestine (int) embedded in the compact liver.
Stomatella, foot truncated posteriorly, an oper culum present, no epipodial tentacles.
Its superficial extent is seen when the folds covering the shell are cut away and the shell removed; the external surface forms a triangle with its base bordering the pericardium, and its apex directed posteriorly and reaching to the lefthand posterior corner of the shell-chamber.
Posteriorly the mantle forms a large pallial lobe FIG.
Cephalic disk enlarged anteriorly, forming an open tube posteriorly; shell external, thick, with p:ominent spire; no operculum.
Cephalic shield short, truncated posteriorly; eyes deeply embedded; three calcareous stomachal plates; shell external, with reduced spire.
Cephalic shield ending posteriorly in a median point; shell internal, largely membranous; no radula or stomachal plates.
Body elongated; visceral mass marked off from foot posteriorly; dorsal appendages absent, or reduced to a single pair; spicules in the integument.
The sternum has no keel, and ossifies from lateral and paired centres only; the axes of the scapula and cora.coid have the same general direction; certain of the cranial bones have characters very unlike those possessed by the next order - the vomer, for example, being broad posteriorly and generally intervening between the basisphenoidal rostrum and the palatals and pterygoids; the barbs of the feathers are disconnected; there is no syrinx or inferior larynx; and the diaphragm is better developed than in other birds.'
Finally, we have the family Rhinocerotidae, which includes the existing representatives of the group. In this family the dentition has undergone considerable reduction, and may be represented inclusive of all the variations, by the formula i a or a m a The first upper incisor, whenpresent, has an 430r2; PP antero-posteriorly elongated crown, but the second is small; when fully developed, the lower canine is a large forwardly directed tusk-like tooth with sharp cutting-edges, and biting against the first upper incisor.
The head is large, and the skull elongated, and elevated posteriorly into a transverse occipital crest.
The heart gives off posteriorly a second median vessel which divides almost at once into a right and a left half, each of which again divides into two vessels which run to the dorsal and ventral mantles respectively.
In Discinisca and Lingula, however, the sub-oesophageal ganglion is not drawn out, but lies medianly; it gives off two posteriorly directed nerves to the stalk, which in Lingula unite and form a substantial nerve.
- Opisthosoma without trace of separate terga and sterna, the segmentation merely represented posteriorly by slight integumental folds and the sterna of the 1st and 2nd somites by the opercular plates of the pulmonary sacs.
The excretory system is highly developed; the larger collecting ducts are elaborately looped and open posteriorly by a single terminal aperture.
The main anatomical justification of this sub-family is given by the postfrontal bones, which, besides bordering the orbits posteriorly, are extended forwards so as to form the upper border of the orbits, separating the latter from the frontals.
The edges of the mantle are united posteriorly except at the anal and branchial apertures, which are placed at the ends of two very short siphons or tubular prolongations of the mantle; the siphons bear a number of short tentacles, and many of these are furnished with eye-spots.
Hence in this type the single flagellum represents the posteriorly-directed one of Trypanoplasma, and the end at which it becomes free is the hinder end.
- Flagellates, in the great majority of instances haemal parasites, derived from a biflagellate, Bodo-like type, in which the posteriorly-directed (trailing) flagellum is always present and attached to the body by an undulating membrane, of which it constitutes the thickened edge.
Posteriorly beneath the posterior adductors, and covered only by a thin layer of elongated epidermal cells, are the visceral ganglia.
Limopsidae.-Shell orbicular, hinge curved, ligament longer transversely than antero-posteriorly; foot elongate, pointed anteriorly and posteriorly.
Both vertically and transversely it measures about an inch and a quarter, while antero-posteriorly it is only about three-quarters of an inch, though its size is liable to great variation.
The pallial cords are united to one another posteriorly, dorsal to the rectum.
Pedal and pleural on each side are connected by a pleuro-pedal connective Each pleural ganglion gives off a long nerve which supplies the viscera, and the two unite posteriorly below the intestine.
The condyle of the lower jaw is antero-posteriorly elongated.
- The rodent skull is characterized by the great size of the premaxillae, which completely separate the nasals from the maxillae; by the presence of zygomatic arches; and by the wide unoccupied space existing between the incisors and the cheek-teeth; and (except in the Duplicidentata) by the antero-posteriorly elongated glenoid cavity for the articulation of the lower jaw.
The two lateral lobes contain the coelom; each separates off in front a segment which forms the head and presumably then divides again to form anteriorly the trunk, and posteriorly the tail regions.
The largest pair of branchiae is placed immediately behind the renal openings and corresponds to the single pair of other molluscs, the organs being repeated anteriorly only (Metamacrobranchs) or anteriorly and posteriorly (Mesomacrobranchs).
As in other molluscs the coelom is represented by a large pericardial cavity, situated above the intestine posteriorly, and a generative sac which is single and median and situated in front of the pericardium, except in the Nuttalochiton hyadesi, where the gonads are in a similar position, but are paired.
In the true Chitonidae there are generally two apertures on each side, and in two species three or four, another instance of the tendency to metameric repetition in the group. The auricles are connected with one another posteriorly behind the ventricle.
Into the groove open mucous glands, a large one anteriorly and another opening into a posteriorly cloacal, branchial cavity.
There is a single unsegmented nerve-cord which runs along the ventral middle line and enlarges posteriorly into a caudal ganglion and anteriorly in a ganglion, the brain, which is not supra-oesophageal.
With the elongation of the body, the dorsal shield begins to project posteriorly as a shell-fold, which may increase in size to envelop more or less of the body or may disappear altogether.
From both birds and reptiles the class is distinguished, so far at any rate as existing forms are concerned, by the following features: the absence of a nucleus in the red corpuscles of the blood, which are nearly always circular in outline; the free suspension of the lungs in a thoracic cavity, separated from the abdominal cavity by a muscular partition, or diaphragm, which is the chief agent in inflating the lungs in respiration; the aorta, or main artery, forming but a single arch after leaving the heart, which curves over the left terminal division of the windpipe, or bronchus; the presence of more or fewer hairs on the skin and the absence of feathers; the greater development of the bridge, or commissure, connecting the two halves of the brain, which usually forms a complete corpus callosum, or displays an unusually large size of its anterior portion; the presence of a fully developed larynx at the upper end of the trachea or windpipe, accompanied by the absence of a syrinx, or expansion, near the lower end of the same; the circumstance that each half of the lower jaw (except perhaps at a very early stage of development) consists of a single piece articulating posteriorly with the squamosal element of the skull without the intervention of a separate quadrate bone; the absence of prefrontal bones in the skull; the presence of a pair of lateral knobs, or condyles (in place of a single median one), on the occipital aspect of the skull for articulation with the first vertebra; and, lastly, the very obvious character of the female being provided with milk-glands, by the secretion of which the young (produced, except in the very lowest group, alive and not by means of externally hatched eggs) are nourished for some time after birth.
The adhesion of a greater or less number of somites to the buccal somite posteriorly (opisthomeres) is a matter of importance, but of minor importance, in the theory and history of the Arthropod head.
Between the molar teeth it is broader, and it ends posteriorly in a rounded excavated border opposite the hinder border of the penultimate molar tooth.
The glenoid surface for the articulation of the mandible is greatly extended transversely, concave from side to side, convex from before backwards in front, and hollow behind, and is bounded posteriorly at its inner part by a prominent post-glenoid process.
The horny hoof is divided into a wall or crust consisting of the front and sides, the flattened or concave sole, and the frog, a triangular median prominence, notched posteriorly, with the apex turned forwards, situated in the hinder part of the sole.
The palate is long and narrow; its mucous surface has seventeen pairs of not very sharply defined oblique ridges, extending as far back as the last molar tooth, beyond which the velum palati extends for about 3 in., having a soft corrugated surface, and ending posteriorly in an arched border without a uvula.
The ovaries consist of a pair of tubes closely applied together, and continued posteriorly into the oviducts.
The oviducts are long, usually more or less convoluted tubes which open posteriorly into the cloaca, while their anterior aperture is situated far forward, sometimes close to the root of the lung; their walls secrete a gelatinous substance which invests the ova as they descend.