The war of Urbino was further marked by a crisis in the relations between pope and cardinals.
The pope was greatly alarmed, and although he was then involved in war with France he sent about 30,000 ducats to the Hungarians.
He seemed at first inclined to press a quarrel with France over the Burgundian frontier, but the refusal of Pope Boniface VIII.
He became a notary and a person of some importance in the city, and was sent in 1343 on a public errand to Pope Clement VI.
He passed his time in feasts and pageants, while in a bull the pope denounced him as a criminal, a pagan and a heretic, until, terrified by a slight disturbance on the 15th of December, he abdicated and fled from Rome.
Denouncing the temporal power of the pope he implored the emperor to deliver Italy, and especially Rome, from their oppressors; but, heedless of his invitations, Charles kept him in prison for more than a year in the fortress of Raudnitz, and then handed him over to Clement, who had been clamouring for his surrender.
In the same year the Lutheran reformation took hold of him, and he began to issue appeals in prose and verse against the Mass and against the pope as antichrist.
The pope was above all a religious man, of a gentle and contemplative character; the cardinal was pre-eminently a man of affairs.
Not long after the return of the pope the amity between the Vatican and the Tuileries was again broken.
For this display of independence he was imprisoned at Reims, and not released till some three years later, when Napoleon had extorted terms from the captive pope at Fontainebleau.
While the council was engaged in planning a crusade and in considering the reform of the clergy, a new crisis occurred between the pope and the king of France.
His marriage in March 1518 was arranged by the pope with Madeleine la Tour d'Auvergne, a royal princess of France, whose daughter was the Catherine de' Medici celebrated in French history.
The pope was accused of having exaggerated the conspiracy of the cardinals for purposes of financial gain, but most of such accusations appear to be unsubstantiated.
The pope had already authorized the extensive grant of indulgences in order to secure funds for the crusade and more particularly for the rebuilding of St Peter's at Rome.
On the 30th of May Luther sent an explanation of his theses to the pope; on the 7th of August he was cited to appear at Rome.
The pope had repeatedly used the rich northern benefices to reward members of the Roman curia, and towards the close of the year 1516 he sent the grasping and impolitic Arcimboldi as papal nuncio to Denmark to collect money for St Peter's.
Then the pope resorted to pawning palace furniture, table plate, jewels, even statues of the apostles.
The pope abolished the order, however, as it seemed to be in bad repute and had outlived its usefulness.
The pope or his legate, however, took no steps to remove abuses or otherwise reform the Scandinavian churches.
An attempt late in 1519 to seize Ferrara failed, and the pope recognized the need of foreign aid.
The pope would have appointed Lucifer a cardinal with what was done to that woman.'
The pope was naturally proud of his family and had practised nepotism from the outset.