With his defects of temper, his violent antipathies, his extravagant notion of papal prerogative, his pontificate was filled with strife.
Leo was disturbed throughout his pontificate by heresy and schism.
For ten years a Germany weakened and divided by the rivalry of Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick left his hands free to act in Italy, and his pontificate marks a period of comparative quiet in the ardent Empire* conflict between pope and emperor which continued throughout the middle ages.
To the pontificate; the death of Piero de' Medici in the same year made Giovanni head of his family.
But he is chiefly famous for his History of the Church of Rome to the Pontificate of Innocent III.
It was during his pontificate that St Polycarp visited the Roman Church.
A supreme priestly rank, that of Rish 'amma: or "head of the people," is recognized, but only in theory; since the time of Pharaoh this sovereign pontificate has only once been filled.
The toleration edicts of Galerius and of Constantine and Licinius were published during his pontificate, which was also marked by the holding of the Lateran synod in Rome (313) at which Caecilianus, bishop of Carthage, was acquitted of the charges brought against him and Donatus condemned.
During his pontificate the church was brought to its lowest level of degradation.
In the past many conflicting estimates were made of the character and achievements of the pope during whose pontificate Protestantism first took form.
An important event of his pontificate was the capture of Granada (2nd of January 1492), which was celebrated at Rome with great rejoicing and for which Innocent gave to Ferdinand of Aragon the title of "Catholic Majesty."
On all sides it was felt that the Italian alliance must be tightened; and one of the last, best acts of Nicholas V.s pontificate was the appeal in 1453 to the five great powers in federation.
Paul III.s pontificate was further marked by important changes in the church, all of which confirmed the spiritual autocracy of Rome.
In the pontificate of Clement XIII they ruled the Vatican, and almost succeeded in embroiling the pope with the concerted Bourbon potentates of Europe.
Although these annals were no doubt destroyed at the time of the burning of Rome by the Gauls, they were restored as far as possible and continued until the pontificate of P. Mucius Scaevola, by whom they were finally published in eighty books.
The chief episode in his uneventful pontificate was the visit of Constans to Rome; the pope received him "almost with religious honours," a deference which he requited by stripping all the brazen ornaments of the city - even to the tiles of the Pantheon - and sending them to Constantinople.
His pontificate was marked by protracted controversies with France and Portugal.
Paul III., who had begun his pontificate with the intention of purifying the curia, was unaware of the grave danger in which Fisher lay; and in the hope of reconciling the king with the bishop, created him (loth of May 1535) cardinal priest of St Vitalis.
Meanwhile, and throughout his long episcopate of thirty-two years, he foreshadowed the zeal and the enlightened policy later to be displayed in the prolonged period of his pontificate, building and restoring many churches, striving to elevate the intellectual as well as the spiritual tone of his clergy, and showing in his pastoral letters an unusual regard for learning and for social reform.
The numerous encyclicals by which the pontificate of Leo XIII.
The worship of Mary, largely developed during the reign of Pius IX., received further stimulus from Leo; nor did he do anything during his pontificate to correct the superstitions connected with popular beliefs concerning relics and indulgences.
Among the canonizations and beatifications of his pontificate that of Sir Thomas More, author of Utopia, is memorable.
The others followed at intervals - the fifth, which appeared in 1842, bringing down the narrative to the pontificate of Boniface Viii.
From the first the Crusade, however clerical in its conception, was largely secular in its conduct; and thus, somewhat paradoxically, a religious enterprise aided the growth of the secular motive, and contributed to the escape of the laity from that tendency towards a papal theocracy, which was evident in the pontificate of Gregory VII.
Simon, its reputed author, and exalts him above Moses; (2) it mystically explains the Hebrew vowel points, which did not obtain till 570; (3) the compiler borrows two verses from the celebrated hymn called " The Royal Diadem," written by Ibn Gabirol, who was born about 1021; (4) it mentions the capture of Jerusalem by the crusaders and the re-taking of the Holy City by the Saracens; (5) it speaks of the comet which appeared at Rome, 15th July 1264, under the pontificate of Urban IV.; (6) by a slip the Zohar assigns a reason why its contents were not revealed before5060-5066A.M., i.e.1300-1306A.D., (7) the doctrine of the En Soph and the Sephiroth was not known before the 13th century; and (8) the very existence of the Zohar itself was not known prior 1 See, e.g., G.
Since the pontificate of Innocent III., however, the Latin Church has placed the subdiaconate among the greater or sacred orders, the subdeacon being obliged to the law of celibacy and bound to the daily recitation of the breviary offices.
Practically nothing is recorded of him, his pontificate falling in the period when Rome was in the power of the Roman nobles.
In 1215, was the most brilliant and the most numerously attended of all, and marks the culminating point of a pontificate which itself represents the zenith attained by the medieval papacy.
Throughout the major part of his pontificate he had to reckon with the presence of the powerful antipope Clement III.
Cicero states that from the earliest period down to the pontificate of Publius Mucius Scaevola (c. 131 B.C.), it was usual for the pontifex maximus to record on a white tablet (album), which was exhibited in an open place at his house, so that the people might read it, first, the name of the consuls and other magistrates, and then the noteworthy events that had occurred during the year (per singulos dies, as Servius says).
After the pontificate of Publius, the practice of compiling annals was carried on by various unofficial writers, of whom Cicero names Cato, Pictor and Piso.
The authority of the pontificate was seriously impaired by these circumstances.
And Alexander III., achieved the widest extension of the power entrusted to them, and in many respects their pontificates may be regarded as a preparation for and adumbration of the pontificate of Innocent III.
The Roman question was complicated during his pontificate with the desperate struggle with the Empire.
The papacy, however, recovered its ascendancy during the pontificate of Alexander III., and seemed more powerful than ever.
The heretic peril, which increased during his pontificate, forced him to take decisive measures against the Albigenses in the south of France, but before proscribing them he spent ten years (1198-1208) in endeavouring to convert the misbelievers, and history should not forget the pacific character of these early efforts.
The years of his pontificate were marked by the steady development and diffusion of those ultramontane ideas which were ultimately formulated, under the presidency of his successor Pius IX., by the council of the Vatican.
Perceiving That The Measure Was Likely To Confer A Great Eclat On His Pontificate, Undertook The Long Desired Reformation; And Having Found The Governments Of The Principal Catholic States Ready To Adopt His Views, He Issued A Brief In The Month Of March 1582, In Which He Abolished The Use Of The Ancient Calendar, And Substituted That Which Has Since Been Received In Almost All Christian Countries Under The Name Of The Gregorian Calendar Or New Style.
During his pontificate a decree against simony was engraven on marble and placed before the altar of St Peter's.
PASCHAL I., pope from 817 to 824, a native of Rome, was raised to the pontificate by the acclamation of the clergy, shortly after the death of Stephen IV., and before the sanction of the emperor (Louis the Pious) had been obtained - a circumstance for which it was one of his first cares to apologize.
He also threw Lorenzo Ricci, the general, into prison, first in the English college and then in the castle of St Angelo, where he died in 1775, under the pontificate of Pius VI., who, though not unfavourable to the Society, and owing his own advancement to it, dared not release him, probably because his continued imprisonment was made a condition by the powers who enjoyed a right of veto in papal elections.
(July 939 to October 949) were virtually nonentities, who held the pontificate while the real direction of the pontifical state was in the hands of Marozia and, afterwards, of her son Alberic, senator of the Romans.