The only reservation which the most advanced Gallicans dared to formulate, in the terms of the celebrated declaration of the clergy of France (1682), had as its object the irreformable character of the pontifical definitions, which, it was claimed, could only have been acquired by them through the assent of the Church.
It doubtless arose from the proposed forms for the definitions of the primacy and the pontifical magisterium.
An episcopal inquiry the pontifical commission in view of his beatification was instituted by decree of the 21st of July 1626, a celerity unique in the annals of the Congregation of Rites.
But the Marches were soon reoccupied by pontifical troops, and Perugia fell, its capture being followed by an indiscriminate massacre of men, women and children.
At general councils bishops wear white linen mitres, cardinals mitres of white silk damask; this is also the case when bishops and cardinals in pontificalibus assist at a solemn pontifical function presided over by the pope.
It is used not only at pontifical High Mass but at all solemn pontifical functions, e.g.
In the 9th century appeared the pontifical gloves; in the loth, the mitre; in the 11th, the use of liturgical shoes and stockings was reserved for cardinals and bishops.
This elaboration of the pontifical vestments was contemporaneous with, and doubtless partly determined by, the assimilation of the bishops during those centuries to the type of the great feudal nobles whose ambitions and love of pomp they shared.
An Orthodox bishop, vested for the holy liturgy, wears over his cassock - (i) the rnxcipcov, or alb (q.v.); the E7nrpay,Acov, or stole (q.v.); (3) the a narrow stuff girdle clasped behind, which holds together the two vestments above named; (4) the E7 n, uaviexa, liturgical cuffs, corresponding, possibly, to the pontifical gloves of the West;' (5) the i 7rtyovarcov, a stiff lozengeshaped piece of stuff hanging at the right side by a piece of riband from the girdle or attached to the o-AKKos, the equivalent of the Western maniple (q.v.); (6) the like the Western dalmatic (q.v.), worn instead of the 4acv6Acov, or chasuble; (7) the c?µocp6pcov, the equivalent of the Western pallium (q.v.).
We cannot even outline here the process of selection by which the symbolic meanings now stereotyped in the Roman Pontifical were arrived at.
This ancient idea of the diaconate, ignored in the Roman Pontifical, has been restored in the English ordinal.
The final imposition of hands and the bestowal of power to forgive sins at the end of the ordination rite for priests in the Roman Pontifical is later even than the tradition of instruments.
For according to the Pontifical, the episcopate is the " summum sacerdotium "; the bishop in consecration receives " the sacerdotal grace "; it is " his office to consecrate, ordain, offer, baptize, confirm."
Thus in the Pontifical the words " Receive the Holy Ghost " are determined and defined by the context.
Recalled to Rome in 1841, he entered the office of the papal secretary of state, but four years later was appointed pontifical treasurer-general.
The oldest Ordo Romanus, which perhaps takes us back to within a century of Gregory the Great, enjoins that in pontifical masses a subdeacon, with a golden censer, shall go before the bishop as he leaves the secretarium for the choir, and two, with censers, before the deacon gospeller as he proceeds with the gospel to the ambo.
Christ established not only a pontifical but a royal sovereignty (principatus) and committed to blessed Peter and his successors the empire both of earth and heaven, as is sufficiently proved by the plurality of the keys" (Codex epist.
It is worth noticing that Mill was one of the subscribers, and that Littre continued his assistance after he had been driven from Comte's society by his high pontifical airs.
No doubt the later indigitamenta (" bidding-prayers") which give us detailed lists of the spirits which preside over the various actions of the infant, or the stages in the marriage ceremony, or the agricultural operations of the farmer, are due in a large measure to deliberate pontifical elaboration, but they are a true indication of the Roman attitude of mind, which reveals itself continually in the analysis of the cults of the household or the festivals of the agricultural year.
The Roman or Pontifical Indiction began on the 25th of December or 1st of January, according as the Christian year was held to begin on the one or other of these days.
Returning to Italy on the outbreak of the revolution of 1848, he was appointed commander of a division of the pontifical forces, and fought against the Austrians in Venetia until the fall of Vicenza, when he returned to Piedmont as major-general.
In any Latin pontifical or Greek euchologion we find numerous prayers for the consecration, not only of men, but of things.
By this act the old English Benedictine line was perpetuated; and in 1619 a number of English monks professed in Spain were aggregated by pontifical act to these representatives of the old English Benedictines, and thus was constituted the present English Benedictine congregation.
His Autonomies ecclesiastiques; eglises separees (1897), in which he speaks of the origin of the Anglican Church, but treats especially of the origin of the Greek Churches of the East, was received with scant favour in certain narrow circles of the pontifical court.
Of the numerous works relating to the reign of the heroic Stephen Bathory, 1 5751586, Ignaty Janicki's Acta historica res gestas Stephani Bathorei illustrantia (Cracow, 1881), and Paul Pierling's Un arbitrage pontifical entre la Pologne et la Russie 1581-1582 (Brussels, 1890) can be recommended.
(July 939 to October 949) were virtually nonentities, who held the pontificate while the real direction of the pontifical state was in the hands of Marozia and, afterwards, of her son Alberic, senator of the Romans.
The Pontifical known as Ecgbert's shows that it was then in use both as an office and as an order, and Aelfric (Io06) in both his pastoral epistle and canons mentions the acolyte.
The duties of the acolyte, as given in the Roman Pontifical, are identical with those mentioned in the Statuta Ecclesiae Antigua of Arles: "It is the duty of acolytes to carry the candlesticks, to light the lamps of the church, to administer wine and water for the Eucharist."
The number of books required for the performance of divine service in pre-Reformation days was very large; the most important being the Missal for the service of Holy Communion or the Mass; the Breviary for the daily service or performance of the divine office; the Manual for the minor sacramental offices usually performed by the parish priest; and the Pontifical, containing such services as were exclusively reserved for performance by the bishop. Many of the contents of these larger volumes were published in separate volumes known by a great variety - over one hundred - different names.
From the 6th century onwards the apostolic vicars of Arles and Thessalonica were merely the titular holders of pontifical honours, with no real authority over those who were nominally under their jurisdiction.
In virtue of the spurious donation of Constantine, forged at Rome in the time of Charlemagne, which was at first circulated in obscurity, but ended by gaining universal credit, it was believed that the first Christian emperor, in withdrawing to Constantinople, had bestowed on the pope all the provinces of the Western Empire, and that in consequence all sovereignty in the West, even that of the emperor, was derived from pontifical concessions.
He was successful at the council of 1059, the pontifical election was placed out of reach of the schemes of the local feudal lords and restored to the heads of the clergy; certain reservations were made with regard to those rights which the Holy See was considered to have conceded personally to Henry of Germany (the young king Henry IV., son of the emperor Henry III.), but nothing more.
In 1073 Hildebrand was raised to the pontifical throne by the acclamation of the people of Rome, under the name of Gregory VII.
The work of reform was now in a good way; the freedom of the pontifical elections had been assured, which gave some Gregory promise that the struggle against abuses would be VII., conducted successfully.
§ 29 et seq.; Lining, Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenrechts (1878); Duchesne, Eglises separees (1905), Les Premiers temps de l'etat pontifical (1904).
(3) The Pontifical Commission for the reunion of the dissident Churches, established by Leo XIII.
The pontifical "family" (familia) forms the pope's civil court.
The pontifical "chapel" (capella) is the papal court for purposes of religious worship. In it the pope is surrounded by the cardinals according to their order; by the patriarchs, archbishops and bishops attending at the throne, and others; by the prelates of the Curia, and by all the clergy both secular and regular.
Since 1870 the great pontifical ceremonies have lost much of their splendour.
The Order of Christ, the supreme pontifical order, is of one class only; for the history of this ancient order see Portugal (infra).
It is contained in a rock-crystal shrine, encased in silver, and is vested in full pontifical robes blazing with jewels.
The royal and pontifical university of St Thomas Aquinas (generally known as the university of Santo Tomas) was founded in 1857 with faculties of theology, law, philosophy, science, medicine and pharmacy, and grew out of a seminary, for the foundation of which Philip II.
From that time the pontifical intervention became more and more frequent, and, in practice, the right of the bishops in the matter of canonization continued to grow more restricted.
In the ceremony of beatification the essential part consists in the reading of the pontifical brief, placing the Venerable in the rank of the Blessed, which is done during a solemn mass, celebrated with special rites in the great hall above the vestibule of the basilica of St Peter.
It became" the starting point of the most momentous and gigantic of medieval forgeries, the Isidorian Decretals," where it stands at the head of the pontifical letters, extended to more than twice its original length."This extension perhaps occurred during the 5th century.
The penalty of excommunication ipso facto is only maintained for reading books written by heretics or apostates in defence of heresy, or books condemned by name under pain of excommunication by pontifical letters (not by decrees of the Index).
The king and lords of England would be driven to think that God had taken away from the Holy See the key of knowledge, and that pontifical laws which were not clear to the pope himself might as well be committed to the flames.
In the same year he was elected president of the assembly of the Romagna after the rejection of pontifical rule by those provinces, and prepared their annexation to Piedmont.
Guiraud, L'Etat pontifical apres le Grand Schisme (1896); Miintz, Les Arts it la tour des pages pendant le xv e et le xvi e siècle (1878); N.
~ the 11th of September a Piedmontese army of 35,000 men of ~ ssed the frontier at La Cattolica,; on the 18th the pontifical Th ny was crushed at Castelfidardo; and when, on the 29th, sep coria fell, TJmbria and the Marches were in the power of we!
The French regular troops were withdrawn from Rome in December 1866; but the pontifical forces were largely recruited in France and commanded by officers of the imperial army, and service under the pope was considered by the French war office as equivalent to service in France.
The royal commissioner for finance, Giacomelli, had, as a precautionary measure, seized the pontifical treasury; but upon being informed by Cardinal Antonelli that among the funds deposited in the treasury were 1,000,000 crowns of Peters Pence offered by the faithful to the pope in person, the commissioner was authorized by the Italian council of state not only to restore this sum, but also to indemnify the Holy See for moneys expended for the service of the October coupon of the pontifical debt, that debt having been taken over by the Italian state.
On the 29th of September Cardinal Ant onelli further apprised Baron Blanc that he was about to issue drafts for the monthly payment of the 50,000 crowns inscribed in the pontifical budget for the maintenance of the pope, the Sacred College, the apostolic palaces and the papal guards.
Under the stress of the appalling financial conditions represented by chronic deficit, crushing taxation, the heavy expenditure necessary for the consolidation of the kingdom, the reform of the army and the interest on the pontifical debt, Sella, on the 11th of December 1871, exposed to parliament the financial situation in all its nakedness.
In 1831 the pope enacted that in all the dioceses of the then Pontifical States, the court of first instance for the criminal causes of ecclesiastics should consist of the ordinary and four other judges.
Article 9 guaracteed to the pope full freedom for the exercise of his spiritual ministry, and provided for the publication of pontifical announcements on the doors of the Roman churches and basilicas.