Nor must it be forgotten that this exile was due to the policy which induced the pontiffs, in their detestation of Ghibellinism, to rely successively upon the houses of Anjou and o Valois.
Notwithstanding the pontiffs bestowal of the apostolic benediction in articulo mortis upon Victor Emmanuel, the attitude of the Vatican had remained so inimical as to make it doubtful whether the conclave would be held in Rome.
The connexion became closer at the time when the schism with its violent controversies between the rival pontiffs, waged with the coarse invective customary to medieval theologians, had brought great discredit on the papacy.
Appointed consul suffectus in the following year, he was admitted into the college of pontiffs and made governor of Britain.
Mr Way, in the article alluded to, says of the custom of offering crowns to churches that frequent notices of the usage may be found in the lives of the Roman pontiffs by Anastasius.
When he threatened to transfer the kingdom of France to England; or the conduct of those later pontiffs who condemned the treaties of Westphalia, the Austrian constitution of 1867 and the establishment of the kingdom of Italy.
The failure of these negotiations, for which he was only in part responsible, led to the universal movement of indignation and impatience, which ended, in France, in the declaration of neutrality (1408), and at Pisa, in the decree of deposition against the two pontiffs (1409).
And it is instructive to observe that when the plebeians extorted their full share of political power they also demanded and obtained admission to every priestly college of political importance, to those, namely, of the pontiffs, the augurs, and the XV viri sacrorum.
Iii., and for the pontiffs in particular the art.
During the occupation of the church by the Uniats or United Greek Church in the 17th century these were covered with whitewash, and were only discovered in 1842, after which the cathedral was internally restored; but the chapel of the Three Pontiffs has been left untouched to show how carefully the old style has been preserved or copied.
In this original scheme it is clearly marked out "that this entire Society and all its members fight for God under the faithful obedience of the most sacred lord, the pope, and the other Roman pontiffs his successors"; and Ignatius makes particular mention th4t each member should "be bound by a special vow," beyond that formal obligation under which all Christians are of obeying the pope, "so that whatsoever the present and other Roman pontiffs for the time being shall ordain, pertaining to the advancement of souls and the propagation of the faith, to whatever provinces he shall resolve to send us, we are straightway bound to obey, as far as in us lies, without any tergiversation or excuse, whether he send us among the Turks or to any other unbelievers in being, even to those parts called India, or to any heretics or schismatics or likewise to any believers."
The Calends, (or Kalends) were invariably the first day of the month, and were so denominated because it had been an ancient custom of the pontiffs to call the people together on that day, to apprize them of the festivals, or days that were to be kept sacred during the month.
Not Even Appear That The Length Of The Intercalary Month Was Regulated By Any Certain Principle, For A Discretionary Power Was Left With The Pontiffs, To Whom The Care Of The Calendar Was Committed, To Intercalate More Or Fewer Days According As The Year Was Found To Differ More Or Less From The Celestial Motions.
By Giving A Greater Or Less Number Of Days To The Intercalary Month, The Pontiffs Were Enabled To Prolong The Term Of A Magistracy Or Hasten The Annual Elections; And So Little Care Had Been Taken To Regulate The Year, That, At The Time Of Julius Caesar, The Civil Equinox Differed From The Astronomical By Three Months, So That The Winter Months Were Carried Back Into Autumn And The Autumnal Into Summer.
In Order To Put An End To The Disorders Arising From The Negligence Or Ignorance Of The Pontiffs, Caesar Abolished The Use Of The Lunar Year And The Intercalary Month, And Regulated The Civil Year Entirely By The Sun.
The Regulations Of Caesar Were Not At First Sufficiently Understood; And The Pontiffs, By Intercalating Every Third Year Instead Of Every Fourth, At The End Of Thirty Six Years Had Intercalated Twelve Times, Instead Of Nine.
LIBER DIURNUS ROMANORUM PONTIFICUM, or "Journal of the Roman Pontiffs," the name given to a collection of formulae used in the papal chancellery in preparing official documents, such as the installation of a pope, the bestowal of the pallium and the grant of papal privileges.
This accidental fact constitutes a prime difference in favour of the preceding period, in which there were only five pontiffs during the first sixty years of the 13th century.
P.) List of the Pontiffs of the Roman Church.'
1 Subsequent pontiffs continued to exhort the episcopate and the whole body of the faithful to be on their guard against heretical writings, whether old or new; and one of the functions of the Inquisition when it was established was to exercise a rigid censorship over books put in circulation.
He had further quarrels with successive pontiffs, and was excommunicated more than once.
A succession of worldly pontiffs brought the church into flagrant discord with the principles of Christianity.
Formerly all cases, civil and criminal, were referred to the clergy, and until the 17th century the clergy were subordinate to a kind of chief pontiff, named sadr-us-sodur, who possessed a very extended jurisdiction, nominated the judges, and managed all the religious endowments of the mosques, colleges, shrines, &c. Shah Safi (1629-1642), in order to diminish the influence of the clergy, appointed two such pontiffs, one for the court and nobility the other for the people.
The most curious of these is a Prophecy concerning the Future Roman Pontiffs, which has produced an extensive literature.
It is probable that he was the author of the law which left it to the discretion of the pontiffs to insert or omit the intercalary month of the year.
The church schism, during which the rival pontiffs assailed each other with all the wild threats and objurgations of medieval theological strife, necessarily alienated the Bohemians to a yet greater extent.
They were taken probably from one or more of the state registers, such as the annals of the pontiffs, or those kept by the aediles in the temple of Ceres.
Avignon was therefore the centre of that varied society which the high pontiffs of Christendom have ever gathered round them.
The great schism of the west had already lasted thirty years, and the efforts which had been made to restore unity within the Church by the simultaneous resignation of the two rival pontiffs had been in vain, when in the spring of 1408, the state of affairs being desperate, the idea arose of assembling a council to effect a union without the co-operation of the popes.
Both the deposed pontiffs protested against the legality of the council of Pisa; each had numerous partisans, and the thesis, constructed rather to meet the exigencies of the case,.
In some cases, as in Rome, the pontiffs kept a kind of register, not merely of religious history, but of important political events as well.
He was now an old man of seventy-seven years, honoured with the friendship of princes, recognized as the most distinguished of Italian humanists, courted by pontiffs, and decorated with the laurel wreath and the order of knighthood by kings.
On the 29th of June 1408 he and seven of his colleagues broke away from Gregory XII., and together with six cardinals of the obedience of Avignon, who had in like manner separated from Benedict XIII., they agreed to aim at the assembling of a general council, setting aside the two rival pontiffs, an expedient which they considered would put an end to the great schism of the Western Church, but which resulted in the election of yet a third pope.