The cause of rupture was the attack on Pontic territory by Nicomedes at the instigation of the Romans.
At the beginning of the 5th century it seems to have been an entrepot of the Pontic grain trade, at a later date an Athenian monopoly (Herod.
The chief incidents of Rhodian history during this period are a memorable siege by Demetrius Poliorcetes in 304, who sought in vain to force the city into active alliance with King Antigonus by means of his formidable fleet and artillery; a severe earthquake in 227, the damages of which all the other Hellenistic states contributed to repair, because they could not afford to see the island ruined; some vigorous campaigns against Byzantium, the Pergamene and the Pontic kings, who had threatened the Black Sea trade-route (220 sqq.), and against the pirates of Crete.
His daughter Berenice meanwhile reigned in Alexandria, a husband being found for her in the Pontic prince Archelaus.
In the basin of the Rion, in that of the Chorokh (which runs off the Pontic highlands into the Black Sea south of Batum), and on the Black Sea littoral from Batum northwards to Sukhum-kaleh, and beyond, the climate is extremely hot and the rainfall heavy (see under Climate below).
Decaisne, who made the subject one of critical study for a number of years, and not only investigated the wild forms, but carefully studied the peculiarities of the numerous varieties cultivated in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, refers all cultivated pears to one species, the individuals of which have in course of time diverged in various directions, so as to form now six races: (I) the Celtic, including P. cordata; (2) the Germanic, including P. communis, P. achras, and P. piraster; (3) the Hellenic, including P. parviflora, P. sinaica and others; (4) the Pontic, including P. elaeagrifolia; (5) the Indian, comprising P. Paschae; and (6) the Mongolic, represented by P. sinensis.
1158; for the Pontic, Bull.
33, 11; for the Pontic, Bull.
Of the Pontic rulers two are most famous.
Under the last king, Mithradates Eupator, commonly called the Great, the realm of Pontus included not only Pontic Cappadocia but alsd the seaboard from the Bithynian frontier to Colchis, part of inland Paphlagonia, and Lesser Armenia (see under MrTHRADATES).
The Pontic possessions of Deiotarus (d.
But presently the process of annexation began and the Pontic districts were gradually incorporated in the empire, each being attached to the province of Galatia, then the centre of Roman forward policy.
295), the Pontic districts were divided up between four provinces of the dioecesis pontica: (1) Paphlagonia, to which was attached most of the old province Pontus; (2) Diospontus, re-named Helenopontus by Constantine, containing the rest of the province Pontus and the adjoining district, eight cities in all (including Sinope, Amisus and Zela) with Amasia as capital; (3) Pontus Polemoniacus, containing Comana, Polemonium, Cerasus and Trapezus with Neocaesarea as capital; and (4) Armenia Minor, five cities, with Sebasteia, as capital.
But the Christianization of the inland Pontic districts began only about the middle of the 3rd century and was largely due to the missionary zeal of Gregory Thaumaturgus, bishop of Neocaesarea.
The maris of the Pontic system is 1/2 of the above, 'and the Macedonian and Naxian maris (1/10) of the Pontic (18).
Henceforward their military power declined and they fell at times under Pontic ascendancy, from which they were finally freed by the Mithradatic wars, in which they heartily supported Rome.
34-35, - together forming Pontus Galaticus, - the Pontic kingdom of Polemon, A.D.
The district of Batum and Artvin in the S.W., which in 1903 were in part separated for administration as the semi-military district of Batum, are filled up by spurs of the Pontic range, 9000 to 11,240 ft.
The most valuable historical material from the Pontic colonies is archaic Ionian pottery from Berezan.
Aveline, filbert), said by Pliny to have been originally designated "Pontic," from their introduction into Asia and Greece from Pontus (see Nat.
And hi; general Diophantus, c. 110 B.e., and submitted to the Pontic dynasty.
When, in 400 B.C., Xenophon marched with the mercenaries of Cyrus, from the Tigris to the Black Sea, the authority of the king was nonexistent north of Armenia, and the tribes of the Pontic moun~ tains, with the Greek cities on the coast, were completely inde~ pendent.
These kings, who mostly bore the Thracian names of Cotys, Rhescuporis, Rhoemetalces, and the native name Sauromates, claimed descent from Mithradates the Great, and used the Pontic era (starting from 297 B.e.) introduced by him, regularly placing dates upon their coins and inscriptions.