GORILLA (or PoNGO), the largest of the man-like apes, and a native of West Africa from the Congo to Cameroon, whence it extends eastwards across the continent to German East Africa.
From this appears that Battel was familiar with both the chimpanzee and the gorilla, the former of which he terms engeco and the latter pongo - names which ought apparently to be adopted for these two species in place of those now in use.
Between Battel's time and 1846 nothing appears to have been heard of the gorilla or pongo, but in that year a missionary at the Gabun accidentally discovered a skull of the huge ape; and in 1847 a sketch of that specimen, together with two others, came into the hands of Sir R.
Falkenstein's gorilla, exhibited at the Westminster aquarium under the name of pongo, and afterwards at the Berlin aquarium, survived for eighteen months.
The great rivers of the sierra are the Maranon, rising in the lake of Lauricocha and flowing northward in a deep gorge between the Maritime and Central Cordilleras for 350 m., when it forces its way through the mountains at the famous Pongo de Manseriche and enters the Amazonian plain.
It breaks through the range at the Pongo de Chasuta and falls into the Maranon.
The Maranon, on having burst through the defile of the Pongo de Man seriche (575 ft.
Pataz, Huanuco, Chuquitambo, Huancavelica, Cuzco, Cotabambas, Aymares, Paucartambo, Santo Domingo and Sandia; the latter wholly on the Amazon slope, in the country about the Pongo de Manseriche and at Chuquibamba, both on the upper Maranon, in the districts of Pataz, Huanuco, Aymares and Antabamba (Apurimac), Paucartambo and Quippicauchi (Cuzco), and Sandia and Carabaya (Puno).
The Santiago, which enters the Maranon near the Pongo de Manseriche, is formed by the confluence of the Paute, which rises in the province of Azuay, and the Zamora, which has its source among the mountains of Loja.
Those whose courses are entirely in French Guinea include the Cogon (or Componi), the Rio Nunez, the Fatalla (which reaches the sea through an estuary named Rio Pongo), the Konkure, whose estuary is named Rio Bramaya, the Forekaria and the Melakori.
To-day the Baga occupy the coast land between the Cogon and the Rio Pongo, and the Landuman the country immediately behind that of the Baga.
In consequence, largely, of the dangers attending its navigation, it was not visited by the European traders of the 16th-18th centuries so frequently as other regions north and east, but in the Rio Pongo, at Matakong (a diminutive island near the mouth of the Forekaria), and elsewhere, slave traders established themselves, and ruins of the strongholds they built, and defended with cannon, still exist.
The Pongo de Manseriche, at the base of the Andes and the head of useful navigation, seems to be the natural terminus of the Maranon; and an examination of the hydrographic conditions of the great valley makes the convenience and accuracy of this apparent.
It has forty-two rapids, its last obstruction being the Pongo de Aguirre, so called from the traitor Aguirre who passed there.
Lat.; then it makes a great bend to the north-east, and with irresistible power cuts through the inland Andes, until at the Pongo de Manseriche 2 it victoriously breaks away from the mountains to flow onwards through the plains under the name of the Amazon.
But the last barrier has yet to be passed, the Pongo de Manseriche, 3 m.
According to Captain Carbajal, who descended it in the little 2 Pongo is a corruption of the Quichua puncu and the Aymara ponco, meaning a door.
The Pongo de Manseriche was first named Maranon, then Santiago, and later Manseric, afterwards Mansariche and Manseriche, owing to the great numbers of parrakeets found on the rocks there.
The Pongo de Manseriche was first discovered by the Adelantado Joan de Salinas.
He fitted out an expedition at Loxa in Ecuador, descended the Rio Santiago to the Maranon, passed through the perilous Pongo in 1557 and invaded the country of the Maynas Indians.
Later, the missionaries of Cuenca and Quito established many missions in the Pais de los Maynas, and made extensive use of the Pongo de Manseriche as an avenue of communication with their several convents on the Andean plateau.
According to their accounts, the huge rent in the Andes, the Pongo, is about five or six m.
"Definite proposals were at that time formulated by which the Gambia was to be exchanged for all posts by France between the Rio Pongas (Pongo river, French Guinea) and the Gabun.
There is an ancient tradition of the savages of the vicinity that one of their gods descending the Maranon and another ascending the Amazon to communicate with him, they opened the pass called the Pongo de Manseriche.
The Morona flows parallel to the Pastaza and immediately to the west of it, and is the last stream of any importance on the northern side of the Amazon before reaching the Pongo de Manseriche.
Swollen by their many affluents, they reach the lowlands and unite their waters to form the Santiago, which flows into the Maranon at the head of the Pongo de Manseriche.
Beyond that, according to Tucker, confirmed by Wertheman, it is unsafe; but small steamers frequently ascend to the Pongo de Manseriche, just above Achual Point.
Thence to the Huallaga the elevation of the land is somewhat greater; but not until this river is passed, and the Pongo de Manseriche approached, does the swelling ground of the Andean foot-hills raise the country above flood-level.