8), they became the rivals of the Judaean dynasty in the period of its splendour, and a chief element in the disorders which invited Pompey's intervention in Palestine.
During the same year, however (according to some, two years later, under Pompey's new law), Scaurus was condemned on a charge of illegal practices when a candidate for the consulship. He went into exile, and nothing further is heard of him.
But Pompey's partisans were beforehand with him: he was taken off by poison and got not so much as a burial in his fatherland.
At the same time his son Alexander was beheaded at Antioch by Pompey's order as an enemy of Rome.
In the southern part of the city are the Arab cemetery, "Pompey's Pillar" and the catacombs.
"Pompey's Pillar," which stands on the highest spot in Alexandria, is nearly 99 ft.
Strabo tells us that this stood in the west of the city; and recent discoveries go far to place it near "Pompey's Pillar" (see above), which, however, was an independent monument erected to commemorate Diocletian's siege of the city.
Botti, late director of the museum, in the neighbourhood of "Pompey's Pillar," where there is a good deal of open ground.
The wealth underground is doubtless immense; but, despite all efforts, there is not much for antiquarians to see in Alexandria outside the museum and the neighbourhood of "Pompey's Pillar."
Among the titles of his tragedies are Aegisthus, Lycurgus, Andromache or Hector Proficiscens, Equus Trojanus, the last named being performed at the opening of Pompey's theatre (55).
The chief towns in the interior were Amasia, on the Iris, the birthplace of Strabo, the capital of Mithradates the Great, and the burial-place of the earlier kings, whose tombs still exist; Comana, higher up the river, a famous centre of the worship of the goddess Ma (or Cybele); Zela, another great religious centre, refounded by Pompey, now Zilch; Eupatoria, refounded by Pompey as Magnopolis at the junction of the Lycus and Iris; Cabira, Pompey's Diospolis, afterwards Neocaesarea, now Niksar; Sebastopolis on the Scylax, now Sulu Seral; Sebasteia, now Sivas; and Megalopolis, a foundation of Pompey, somewhere in the same district.
Private worship that it had to be suppressed by decree of the Senate in 186 B.C., and later on were established the cults of Ma of Phrygia, introduced by Sulla and identified with Bellona, the Egyptian Isis, and, after Pompey's war with the pirates, even the Persian Mithras.
The Albani became known to the Romans during Pompey's pursuit of Mithradates the Great (65 B.C.), against which they are said to have opposed a force of 60,000 foot and 20,000 cavalry.
Caesar, however, overrode all opposition, mustering Pompey's veterans pey to drive his colleague from the forum.
There can be no doubt that Caesar was cognizant of some at least of the threads of conspiracy which were woven during Pompey's absence in the East.
An equally abortive attempt to create a counterpoise to Pompey's power was made by the tribune Rullus at the close of 64 B.C. He proposed to create a land commission with very wide powers, which would in effect have been wielded by Caesar and Crassus.
As praetor (62 B.C.) Caesar supported proposals in Pompey's favour which brought him into violent collision with the senate.
This was a master-stroke of tactics, as Pompey's return was imminent.
Pompey's available force consisted in two legions stationed in Campania, and eight, commanded by his lieutenants, Afranius and Petreius, in Spain; both sides levied troops in Italy.
He reached Ilerda (Lerida) on the 23rd of June and, after extricating his army from a perilous situation, outmanoeuvred Pompey's lieutenants and received their submission on the 2nd of August.
He attempted to invest Pompey's lines at Dyrrhachium (Durazzo), though his opponent's force was double that of his own, and was defeated with considerable loss.
He now marched eastwards, in order if possible to intercept the reinforcements which Pompey's father-in-law, Scipio, was bringing up; but Pompey tions to Britain.
Caesar returned to Rome in September, and six months later (15th of March 44 B.C.) was murdered in the senate house at the foot of Pompey's statue.
Pompey's lieutenant Scaurus Pompey entered Syria in 65 B.C., after the final defeat of Mithradates, and Pompey soon followed to take command of the situation.
At the close of the year, greatly to his annoyance, he was sent to govern Cilicia under the provisions of Pompey's law (see Pompey and Rome: History).
After much irresolution he refused Caesar's invitations and resolved to join Pompey's forces in Greece.
In the Punic Wars it sided with the Carthaginians and suffered much from the Roman arms. In its immediate neighbourhood Hanno was defeated by Scipio in 216 B.C., and it afterwards became famous as the scene of Caesar's arduous struggle with Pompey's generals Afranius and Petreius in the first year of the civil war (49 B.C.).
Asiaticus, made peace on advantageous terms with Pompey in 64 B.C. Subsequently he fought on Pompey's side in the Civil War, and later still repelled an attack on Samosata by Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony.) He died before 31 B.C. and was succeeded by one Mithradates I.
In politics and war he followed Pompey's lead; but it is probable that he was discontented with the course on which his leader entered when the first triumvirate was formed, and he may thus have lost his chance of rising to the consulate.