Still more curious, and almost peculiar to Pompeii, are the numerous writings painted upon the walls, which have generally a semipublic character, such as recommendations of candidates for municipal offices, advertisements, &c., and the scratched inscriptions (graffiti), which are generally the mere expression of individual impulse and feeling, frequently amatory, and not uncommonly conveyed in rude and imperfect verses.
Having laid the founda - tions of a successful business in his admirable domestic pottery - the best the world had ever seen up to that time - he turned his attention to artistic pottery, and the European renaissance of classic art - fostered by the discovery of Pompeii and the recovery of Greek painted vases from the ancient graves in Campania.
The inscriptions at Pompeii, for instance, give evidence of keenly contested elections in the and century.
142) further states that roads must have run direct from Nola to Neapolis and Pompeii, but Kiepert's map annexed to the volume does not indicate them.
Above sea-level, near the sources of the Sarno (anc. Sarnus), a stream connected by canal with Pompeii and the sea.
The travertine which forms round the springs of the Sarno was used even at Pompeii as building material.
Glass, in flat pieces, such as might be employed for windows, has been found in the ruins of Roman houses, both in England and in Italy, and in the house of the faun at Pompeii a small pane in a bronze frame remains.
It was found in a house in the Street of Tombs at Pompeii in the year 1839, and is now in the Royal Museum at Naples.
High; the ornament consists mainly of a most beautiful band of foliage, chiefly of the vine, with bunches of grapes; the ground is blue and the ornaments white; it was found at Pompeii in the house of the faun.
Bongars wrote an abridgment of Justin's abridgment of the history of Trogus Pompeius under the title Justinus, Trogi Pompeii Historiarum Pltilippicarum epitoma de manuscriptis codicibus emendatior et prologis auctior (Paris, 1581).
At Pompeii, for example, among other de- a astation, the temple of Isis was~ shaken into ruins, and, as an ii iscription records, it was rebuilt from the foundations by the d sunificence of a private citizen.
Three towns are known to d ave been destroyedHerculaneum at the western base of the y olcano, Pompeii on the south-east side, and Stabiae, still farther sl outh, on the site of the modern Castellamare.
The finest are those of the Bevilacqua,' Canossa and Pompeii families.
From Naples, after visiting Pompeii, he returned to Paris, his mind fermenting with poetical images and projects, few of which he was destined to realize.
The market hall (macellum) (compare the similar buildings at Pompeii and elsewhere), generally known as the temple of Serapis, from a statue of that deity found there, was excavated in 1750.
Dyer frequently visited Greece and Italy, and his topographical works are probably his best; amongst these mention may be made of Pompeii, its History, Buildings and Antiquities (1867, new ed.
In the period before the Roman supremacy it appears to have been the chief town in the valley of the Sarnus, Herculaneum, Pompeii, Stabiae and Surrentum all being dependent upon it.
The Hebrew "shekel of the sanctuary" is familiar; the standard volume of the apet was secured in the dromus of Anubis at Memphis (35); in Athens, besides the standard weight, twelve copies for public comparison were kept in the city; also standard volume measures in several places (2); at Pompeii the block with standard volumes cut in it was found in the portico of the forum (33); other such standards are known in Greek cities (Gythium, Panidum and Trajanopolis) (11, 33); at Rome the standards were kept in the Capitol, and weights also in the temple of Hercules (2); the standard cubit of the Nilometer was before Constantine in the Serapaeum, but was removed by him to the church (2).
In.; and by the ponderarium measures at Pompeii (33) 1540 to 1840, or about 1620 for a mean.
They differ widely from the town houses of Rome and Pompeii: they are less unlike some of the country houses of Italy and Roman Africa; but their real parallels occur in Gaul, and they may be Celtic types modified to Roman use - like Indian bungalows.
The plural form Atlantes is the classical term in architecture for the male sculptured figures supporting a superstructure as in the baths at Pompeii, and in the temple at Agrigentum in Sicily.
POMPEII, 1 an ancient town of Campania, Italy, situated near the river Sarnus, nearly 2 M.
The conquest of Campania by the last-mentioned people is an undoubted historical fact, and there can be no doubt that Pompeii shared the fate of the neighbouring cities on this occasion, and afterwards passed in common with them under the yoke of Rome.
The same fashion continued under the empire, and there can be no doubt that, during the first century of the Christian era, Pompeii had become a flourishing place 1 The etymology of the name is uncertain; the ancients derived it from pompa or (Gr.
S Pompeii was attacked as a member of the Nucerine League.
63) an earthquake, which affected all the neighbouring towns, vented its force especially upon Pompeii, a large part of which, including most of the public buildings, was either destroyed or so seriously damaged as to require to be rebuilt (Tac. Ann.
Vesuvius (q.v.), the volcanic forces of which had been slumbering for unknown ages, suddenly burst into violent eruption, which, while it carried devastation all around the beautiful gulf, buried the two cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii under dense beds of cinders and ashes.
16, 20), he does not even notice the destruction of Pompeii or Herculaneum, though his uncle perished in the immediate neighbourhood of the former city.
Pompeii was merely covered with a bed of lighter substances, cinders, small stones and ashes, which fell in a dry state, while at Herculaneum the same substances, being drenched with water, hardened into a sort of tuf a, which in places is 65 ft.
Pompeii in ancient times was a prosperous seaport town situated close to the seashore, from which it is now nearly 2 m.
The prosperity of Pompeii was due partly to its commerce, as the port of the neighbouring towns, partly to the fertility of its territory, which produced strong wine, olive oil (a comparatively small quantity), and vegetables; fish sauces were made here.
The population of Pompeii at the time of its destruction cannot be fixed with certainty, but it may very likely have exceeded 20,000.
The forum at Pompeii was, as at Rome itself and in all other Italian cities, the focus and centre of all the life and movement of the city.
At the south end of the forum are three .halls side by side, similar in plan with a common façade-the central one, the curia or council chamber, the others the offices respectively of the duumvirs and aediles, the principal officials of the city; while the greater part of the west side is occupied by two large buildings-a basilica, which is the largest edifice in Pompeii, and the temple of Apollo, which presents its side to the forum, and hence fills up a large portion of the surrounding space.
Of these by far the most interesting, though the least perfect, is one which is commonly known as the temple of Hercules (an appellation wholly without foundation), and which is not only by far the most ancient edifice in Pompeii, but presents us with all the characters of a true Greek temple, resembling in its proportions that of the earliest temple of Selinus, and probably of as remote antiquity (6th century B.C.).
Holconius Celer, both of whom held important municipal offices at Pompeii during the reign of Augustus.
Mau, Pompeii in Leben and Kunst (Leipzig, 1908), pp. 150 sqq.
Among the more important public buildings of Pompeii were the public baths (thermae).
At Pompeii the baths are so well preserved as to show at a glance the purpose of all the different parts - while they are among the most richly decorated of all the buildings in the city.
In this case an inscription records the repair and restoration of the edifice after the The interest taken by the Pompeians in the sports of the amphitheatre is shown by the contents of the numerous painted and scratched inscriptions relating to them which have been found in Pompeii - notices of combats, laudatory inscriptions, including even references to the admiration which gladiators won from the fair sex, &c.
Great as is the interest attached to the various public buildings of Pompeii, and valuable as is the light that they have in some instances thrown upon similar edifices in other ruined cities, far more curious and interesting is the insight afforded us by the numerous private houses and shops into the ordinary life and habits of the population of an ancient town.
The houses at Pompeii are generally low, rarely exceeding two storeys in height, and it appears certain that the upper storey was generally of a slight construction, and occupied by small rooms, serving as garrets, or sleeping places for slaves, and perhaps for the females of the family.
All the apartments and arrangements described by Vitruvius and other ancient writers may be readily traced in the houses of Pompeii, and in many instances these have for the first time enabled us to understand the technical terms and details transmitted to us by Latin authors.
At Pompeii indeed the streets were not wide, but they were straight and regular, and the houses of the better class occupied considerable spaces, presenting in this respect no doubt a striking contrast, not only with those of Rome itself, but with those of many other Italian towns, where the buildings would necessarily be huddled together from the circumstances of their position.
Even at Pompeii itself, on the west side of the city, where the ground slopes somewhat steeply towards the sea, houses are found which consisted of three storeys or more.
The architecture of Pompeii must be regarded as presenting in general a transitional character from the pure Greek style to that of the Roman Empire.
And the period coincides with the first (incrustation) style of mural decoration, which (probably originating in Alexandria) aimed at 1 The paintings of the house of the Vettii are perhaps the best-preserved in Pompeii, and extremely fine in conception and execution, especially the scenes in which Cupids take part.
Mau, Pompeii: its Life and Art (trans.
Kelsey, 2nd ed., New York and London, 1902; 2nd revised edition of the German original, Pompeii in Leben and Kunst, Leipzig, 1908), the best general account written by the greatest authority on the subject, to which our description owes much, with full references to other sources of information; and, for later excavations, Notizie degli Scavi and Romische Mitteilungen (in the latter, articles by Mau), passim.
Hence it has been inferred that these oldest Latin inscriptions are also older than Sulla's colony; if so, Latin must have been in use, and in fairly common use (if the programmata were to be of any service), in Pompeii at that date.
An interesting stone containing nine cavities for measures of capacity found in Pompeii and now preserved in the Naples Museum with Oscan inscriptions erased in antiquity shows that the Oscan system of measurement was modified so as to correspond more closely with the Roman, about 14 B.C., by the duoviri, who record their work in a Latin inscription (C.I.L.
The French have made good progress in their work at Delos, where the town site is now said to be a Hellenistic Pompeii, its houses still preserving their mosaic floors and frescopainted walls.
The ruins are less frequently visited than those of Pompeii, not only because they are smaller in extent and of less obvious interest, but also because they are more difficult of access.
The brief notices of the classical writers inform us that Herculaneum' was a small city of Campania between Neapolis and Pompeii, that it was situated between two streams at the foot of Vesuvius on a hill overlooking the sea, and that its harbour was at all seasons safe.
Having submitted anew in June of the year 665 (88 B.C.), it appears to have been less severely treated than Pompeii, and to have escaped the imposition of a colony of Sulla's veterans, although Zumpt has suspected the contrary (Comm.
38), when a Roman fleet landed near Pompeii in 309 B.C. and made an unsuccessful marauding expedition up the river valley as far as Nuceria.
The architecture of Pompeii suffers also from the inferior quality of the materials generally employed.
These tombs are in many instances monuments of considerable pretension, and of a highly ornamental character, and naturally present in the highest degree the peculiar advantage common to all that remains of Pompeii, in their perfect preservation.