So under the advice of his minister (the marquis of Pombal), King Joseph of Portugal in 1759-1760 claimed that the pope should give him permission to try in all cases clerics accused of treason, and was not content with the limited permission given to try and execute, if guilty, the Jesuits then accused of conspiring his death (Life of Pombal, by Count da Carnota, 1871, pp. 128, 1 4 1).
Da Carnota, Life of Pombal (1843); J.
Rearguard actions were fought at Pombal (March to), Redinha (March 12) and Condeixa (March 13).
The Portuguese government, under the administration of Carvalho, afterwards marquis of Pombal, attempted to extend to Brazil the bold spirit of innovation which directed all his efforts.
The Brazilian Company founded by Vieyra, which so materially contributed to preserve its South American possessions to Portugal, had been abolished in 1721 by John V.; but such an instrument being well suited to the bold spirit of Pombal, he established a chartered company again in 1755, to trade exclusively with Maranhao and Para; and in 1759, in spite of the remonstrance of the British Factory at Lisbon, formed another company for Parahyba and Pernambuco.
The most important feature in the history of Brazil during the first thirty years following the retirement of Pombal was the conspiracy of Minas in 1789.
The Jesuits had fallen upon evil days; in 1758 Pombal expelled them from Portugal; his example was followed by the Bourbon countries - France, Spain, the Two Sicilies and Parma (1764-1768).
In 1757 Carvalho, marquis of Pombal, prime minister of Joseph I.
The pope, who knew the situation, committed a visitation of the Society to Cardinal Saldanha, an intimate friend of Pombal, who issued a severe decree against the Jesuits and ordered the confiscation of all their merchandise.
Pombal, finding no help from Rome, adopted other means.
Pombal charged the whole Society with the possible guilt of a few, and, unwilling to wait the dubious issue of an application to the pope for licence to try them in the civil courts, whence they were exempt, issued on the 1st of September 1759 a decree ordering the immediate deportation of every Jesuit from Portugal and all its dependencies and their suppression by the bishops in the schools and universities.
Pombal, the great reforming minister of in Portugal, expelled them from that country on a charge of having conspired against the life of the king.
(7) Between 1755 and 1826 the reforms of Pombal and the Peninsular War prepared the country for a change from absolutism to constitutional monarchy.
Pombal liberated the monarchy from clerical domination, and thus unwittingly opened the door to those " French principles," or democratic ideas, which spread rapidly after his downfall in 1 777 .
The destruction of an obsolete political system, begun by Pombal, was completed by the Peninsular War; while French invaders and British governors together quickened among the Portuguese a new consciousness of their nationality, and a new desire for political rights, which rendered inevitable the change to constitutional monarchy.
Two days after the accession of King Joseph, Sebastiao Jose de Carvalho e Mello, better known as the marquess of Pombal (q.v.), was appointed secretary of state for foreign affairs and war.
Over the king's mind which lasted until the end of the reign, and was strengthened by the courage and wisdom shown by Pombal at the time of the great earthquake.
Both his commercial policy and his desire to strengthen the Crown brought Pombal into conflict with the Church and the aristocracy.
Various charges were brought against the Society by Pombal, and in September 1759, after five years of heated controversy (see JEsuITs), he published a decree of expulsion against all its members in the Portuguese dominions.
Pombal appointed a special tribunal to judge the case; many of the accused, including those already mentioned, were found guilty and executed; and an attempt was made to implicate the Jesuits.
His victory over the Jesuits left Pombal free to develop his plans fox reform.
A school of commerce was founded in 1759; in 1760 the censorship of books was transferred from an ecclesiastical to a lay tribunal; in 1761 the former Jesuit college in Lisbon was converted into a college for the sons of noblemen; in 1768 a royal printing-press was established; in 1772 Pombal provided for a complete system of primary and secondary education, entailing the foundation of 837 schools.
Funds for these reforms were to a great extent provided out of the sequestrated property of the Jesuits; Pombal also effected great economies in internal administration.
In 1760 Admiral Boscawen had violated Portuguese neutrality by burning four French ships off Lagos; Pombal protested and the British government apologized, but not before the military weakness of Portugal had been demonstrated.
Two years later, when the Family Compact involved Portugal in a war with Spain, Pombal called in Count William of Lippe-Biickeburg to reorganize the army, which was reinforced by a British contingent under Brigadier-General John Burgoyne, and was increased from 5000 to 50,000 men.
Towards the close of the reign, a long-standing controversy with Spain as to the frontier between Brazil and the Spanish colonies threatened a renewal of the war; but in this crisis Pombal was deprived of power by the death of King Joseph (Feb.
Tithes, many hereditary privileges and all monopolies were abolished; every convent was closed and its property nationalized; the Jesuits, who had returned after the death of Pombal, were again expelled; the charter of 1826 was restored.
His partisans in the press hailed the advent of a second Pombal, and their enthusiasm was shared by many enlightened Portuguese, who had previously held aloof from politics but now rallied to the support of an honest dictator.
It had only gained a partial success cause the despotic rule of Pombal, like the Inquisition before im, hindered freedom of fancy and discussion, and drove the Arcadians to waste themselves on flattering the powerful.
It seems probable, for example, that in Portugal the marquis de Pombal was in reality a deist, and both in Italy and in Spain there were signs of the same rationalistic revolt.