Or a polyp on the main stem, after having budded a second time to form a pinnule, may give rise to a third bud, which starts a new biserial FIG.
In the polyp the nervous tissue is always in the form of a scattered plexus, never concentrated to form a definite nervous system as in the medusa.
The buds may all become detached after a time and give rise to separate and independent individuals, as in the common Hydra, in which only polyp-individuals are produced and sexual elements From Allman's Gymnoblastic Hydroids, by permission of are developed the Council of the Ray Society.
On the other hand, the polyp .individuals produced by budding may remain permanently in connexion with the parent polyp, in which case sexual elements are never developed on polyp-individuals but only on medusa-individuals, and a true colony is formed.
Thus the typical hydroid colony starts from a " founder " polyp, which in the vast majority of cases is fixed, but which may be floating, as in Nemopsis, Pelagohydra, &c. The founder-polyp usually produces by budding polyp-individuals, and these in their turn produce other buds.
After a time the polyps, or certain of them, produce by budding medusa-individuals, which sooner or later develop sexual elements; in some cases, however, the founder_ polyp remains solitary, that is to say, does not produce polypbuds, but only medusa-buds, from the first (Corymorpha, fig.
As a general rule polyp-buds are produced from the hydrorhiza and hydrocaulus, while medusa-buds are formed on the hydranth.
The coenosarc constitutes a system by which the digestive cavity of any one polyp is put into communication with that of any other individual either of the trophosome or gonosome.
12, 14) the founder-polyp is, theoretically, of unlimited growth in a vertical direction, and as it grows up it throws out buds right and left alternately, so that the first bud produced by it is the lowest down, I he second bud 15 above the first, the third above this again, and so on.
Hence, in a colony of gymnoblastic hydroids, the oldest polyp of each system, that is to say, of the main stem or of a branch, is the topmost polyp; II ?a ` FIG.
F, the founder-polyp; I, 2, 3, 4, the succession of polyps budded from the founder-polyp; a', b', c', the succession of polyps budded from 1; a 2, 2 polyps budded from 2; a 3, polyp budded from 3.
The youngest polyp of the system is the one nearest to the topmost polyp; and the axis of the system is a true axis.
In the sympodial method of budding, on the other hand, the founder-polyp is of limited growth, and forms a bud from its side, which is also of limited growth, and forms a bud in its turn, and so on (figs.
The pinnules never branch again, since in the uniserial mode of budding a polyp never forms a second polyp-bud.
Such are the " guard-polyps " (machopolyps) of Plumularidae, which are often regarded as individuals of the nature of dactylozoids, but from a study of the mode of budding in this hydroid family Driesch concluded that the guard-polyps were not true polyp-individuals, although each is enclosed in a small protecting cup of the perisarc, known as a nematophore.
Polyp 7 has proof sense, 1 o c oduced as its first bud, 8; as its second bud, a7, motion and nutriwhich starts a uniserial pinnule; and as a third t i on, until its bud I', which starts a biserial branch (I I'-VI') medusoid nature that repeats the structure of the main stem and and organization gives off pinnules.
F, founder-polyp; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, succession of polyps budded from the founder; a, b, c, second series of polyps budded from the founder; a 3, b 3, series budded from 3.
23 and 25); and, fourthly, in structure, being hollow or solid, as in the polyp. In some medusae, for instance, the remarkable deep-sea family Pectyllidae, the tentacles may bear suckers, by which the animal may attach itself temporarily.
The histology described above for the polyp may be taken as the primitive type, from which that From Allman's G y mnoblastic Hydroids, by permission of the Council of the Ray Society.
The muscle-fibres arise as processes from the bases of the epithelial cells; such cells may individually become sub-epithelial in position, as in the polyp; or, in places where muscular tissue is greatly developed, as in the velum or sub-umbrella, the entire muscular epithelium may be thrown into folds in order to increase its surface, so that a deeper sub-epithelial muscular layer becomes separated completely from a more superficial bodyepithelium.
In contrast with the polyp, the longitudinal muscle-system is entirely ectodermal, there being no endodermal muscles in craspedote medusae.
The endoderm of the medusa shows the same general types of structure as in the polyp, described above.
Moreover, all the medusae budded from a given hydroid colony are either male or female, so that even the non-sexual polyp must be considered to have a latent sex.
In all cases only medusabuds are produced, never polyp-buds.
The second case gives a colony partly composed of polyp-individuals, partly of medusa-individuals, a possibility also realized in many colonies of Hydroidea.
From the bionomical point of view, the medusa is to be considered as a means of spreading the species, supplementing the deficiencies of the :" Ca sessile polyp. It may be, however, that increased reproductiveness becomes of greater importance to the species than wide diffu sion; such a condition FIG.
Hence, in a colony of calyptoblastic hydroids, the oldest polyp of a system is the lowest; the youngest polyp is the top F =most one; and the axis of the system is a false axis composed of portions of each of the consecutive polyps.
The polyp may then form a second bud, which becomes the starting point of a new system, the beginning, that is, of a new branch; and even a third bud, starting yet another system, may be produced from the same polyp. Hence the colonies of Calyptoblastea may be com plexly branched, and the bud ding may be biserial through out, uniserial throughout, or partly one, partly the other.
- Diagram of sympodial 18) there is formed a main stem budding, uniserial type, shown on tithe i ma in t emeafh r m s polyp in four stages (1-4).
F, foundersecond bud, which usually polyp; I, 2, 3, succession of polyps forms a side branch or pinnule budded from the founder.
As in other cases where animal colonies are formed by organic union of separate individuals, there is ever a tendency for the polyp-colony as a whole to act as a single individual, and for the members to become subordinated to the needs of the colony and to undergo specialization for particular functions, with the result that they simulate organs and their individuality becomes masked to a greater or less degree.
The nervous system of the medusa consists of sub-epithelial ganglion-cells, which form, in the first place, a diffuse plexus of nervous tissue, as in the polyp, but developed chiefly on the subumbral surface; and which are concentrated, in the second place, to form a definite central nervous system, never found in the polyp. In Hydromedusae the central nervous system forms two concentric nerverings at the margin of the umbrella, near the base of the velum.
The possession of definite senseorgans at once distinguishes the medusa from the polyp, in which they are never found.
(2) With very few exceptions, the polyp is not the only type of individual that occurs, but alternates in the life-cycle of a given species, with a distinct type, the medusa, while in other cases the polyp-stage may be absent altogether, so that only medusa-individuals occur in the life-cycle.
(3) The gonads, whether formed in the polyp or the medusa, are developed in the ectoderm.
Hence both polyp and medusa present characters for classification, and a given species, genus or other taxonomic category may be defined by polyp-characters or medusa-characters or by both combined.
In the majority of cases we do not know the polyp corresponding to a given medusa, or the medusa that arises from a given polyp.'
At present, therefore, classifications of the Hydromedusae have a more or less tentative character, and are liable to revision with increased knowledge of the life-histories of these organisms. Many groups bear at present two names, the one representing the group as defined by polyp-characters, the other as defined by medusa-characters.
It is not even possible in all cases to be certain that the polyp-group corresponds exactly to the medusagroup, especially in minor systematic categories, such as families.
As already stated, there occur in the Hydromedusae two distinct types of person, the polyp and the medusa; and either of them is capable of non-sexual reproduction by budding, a process which may lead to the formation of colonies, composed of more or fewer individuals combined and connected together.
The morphology of the group thus falls naturally into four sections - (I) the hydropolyp, (2) the polyp-colony, (3) the hydromedusa, (4) the medusa-colonies.
- Stauridium productum, portion of the colony magnified; p, polyp; rh, hydrorhiza.
II, A) the polyp bears two tentacles only.
It is rare to find in the polyp a regular, symmetrical disposition of the tentacles as in the medusa.
In the curious polyp Myriothela the body of the polyp is differ FIG.
B, C. multicornis, natural size; p, polyp; gon, gonophores; rh, hydrorhiza.
A further stage in evolution is that the muscle-cells lose their connexion with the epithelium and come to lie entirely beneath it, forming a sub-epithelial contractile layer, developed chiefly in the tentacles of the polyp. The of the evolution of the ganglioncells is probably similar; an epithelial cell develops processes of nervous nature from the base, which come into connexion with the bases of the sensory cells, with the muscular cells, and with the similar processes of other nerve-cells; next the nerve-cell loses its connexion with the outer epithelium and becomes a sub-epithelial ganglion-cell which is closely connected with the muscular layer, conveying stimuli from the sensory cells to the contractile elements.
The sense-cells form, in the first place, a diffuse system of scattered sensory cells, as in the polyp, developed chiefly on the manubrium, the tentacles and the margin of the umbrella, where they form a sensory ciliated epithelium covering the nerve-centres; in the second place, the sense-cells are concentrated to form definite sense-organs, situated always at the margin of the umbrella, hence often termed " marginal bodies."
In this way the medusa sinks from an independent per sonality to an organ of the polyp-colony, becoming a so-called medusoid gonophore, or bearer of the reproductive organs, and losing gradually all organs necessary for an independent existence, namely those of sense, locomotion and nutrition.
As described for the polyp, they are wandering cells capable of extensive migrations before reaching the particular spot at which they ripen.