This has been discredited because it is not mentioned by Polybius, Livy or Plutarch; but it is probable that Archimedes had constructed some such burning instrument, though the connexion of it with the destruction of the Roman fleet is more than doubtful.
The northern portion of it consists of a lofty ridge with two summits, the westernmost of which is occupied by the modern town (985 ft.), while the easternmost, which is slightly higher, bears the name of Rock of Athena, owing to its identification in modern days with the acropolis of Acragas as described by Polybius, who places upon it the temple of Zeus Atabyrius (the erection of which was attributed to the half mythical Phalaris) and that of Athena.'
2 Polybius ix.
Polybius accuses Cleomenes of the murder, but Plutarch is probably right in saying that it was the work of those who had caused the death of Agis, and feared his brother's vengeance.
5; Polybius v.
Passim; Polybius iv.
Thus we already find Polybius repeatedly applying it in this wider signification to the whole country, as far as the fOot of the Alps; and it is evident from many passages in the Latin writers that this was the familiar use of the term in the days of Cicero and Caesar.
At this point Josephus cites the testimony of Polybius: - " Scopas, the general of Ptolemy, advanced into the highlands and subdued the nation of the Jews in the winter.
The language of Polybius suggests that he was acquainted with other Jewish communities and with the fame of the Temple: in his view they are not an organized state.
At the same time they were so far from enjoying tranquillity on this account that the few notices we find of them in history always represent them as engaged in local wars among one another; and Polybius tells us that the history of Crete was one continued series of civil wars, which were carried on with a bitter animosity exceeding all that was known in the rest of Greece.
The latter weapon in the interval between Alexander and the time of Polybius had been increased to a length of 21 ft.
It is first mentioned in the year 220 by Polybius v.
Among historians who looked upon geography as an important aid in their work are numbered Polybius (c. 210-120 B.C.), Diodorus Siculus (c. 30 B.C.) and Agathachidus of Cnidus (c. 120 B.C.) to whom we are indebted for a valuable account of the Erythrean Sea and the adjoining parts of Arabia and Ethiopia.
For the Gallic retreat, see Polybius ii.
For the later period he uses the Greek Esther, with its additions, I Maccabees, Polybius, Strabo and Nicolaus of Damascus.
(follows generally Timaeus who had a special grudge against Agathocles); Polybius ix.
In the circle of Scipio he doubtless met the historian Polybius, who was brought to Italy in 167.
It seems to have suffered in the civil wars at the hands of Sextus Pompeius, the son of the triumvir, who for a short time was master of Sicily; to repair the mischief, new settlers were sent 1 This statement made by Polybius (viii.
P. 885), suppose that the portion of the coast road from Vada Volaterrana to Genua at least must have existed before the construction of the Via Postumia in 148 B.C. Indeed Polybius (iii.
SuIdas (s.v.), who mentions the second work, confounds the older Scylax with a much later author, who wrote a refutation of the history of Polybius, and is presumably identical with Scylax of Halicarnassus, a statesman and astrologer, the friend of Panaetius spoken of by Cicero (De div.
114; Aristotle, Politics, 1303a sqq.; Strabo p. 325; Polybius xxii.
The influence of Panaetius and Polybius was more adapted to their maturity, when they led the state in war, statesmanship and oratory, and when the humaner teaching of Stoicism began to enlarge the sympathies of Roman jurists.
He died about 260 (Polybius ii.
32-73; Xenophon, Hellenica, vi., vii.; Polybius ii.
(1) Fabius Pictor places it in the latter half of the first year of the eighth Olympiad, which corresponds with the 3967th of the Julian period, and with the year 747 B.C. (2) Polybius places it in the second year of the seventh Olympiad, corresponding with 3964 of the Julian period, and 750 B.C. (3) M.
Near Clusium too, according to Livy (according to Polybius ii.
He never mentions his authorities, but amongst authors still extant he used Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius, Diodorus, Plutarch, Frontinus and Suetonius; amongst authors of whom only fragments now remain he drew upon Ctesias, Ephorus, Timaeus, Phylarchus and Nicolaus Damascenus.
3; Polybius iii.
85-87; Polybius ii.
Livy, Epit., 19; Polybius i.
The latest name in the above list is that of Polybius, who died about 123 B.C. Apollonius Rhodius, Aratus and Theocritus were subsequently added to the " epic " poets.
9, 3) that the sixth book of the Memoirs was identical with the second of the Continuation of Polybius; probably, therefore, books i.
70) of having treated of the exploits of Alexander in his Memoirs, a topic which could not have found a place in a work which began where that of Polybius ended (146 B.C.).
According to Suidas, the continuation of Polybius was in forty-three books.
But in this he relied on Polybius, whom he might justly consider as having from his position at Rome far better means of gaining accurate information.
Strabo chiefly employed Greek authorities (the Alexandrian geographers Polybius, Posidonius and Theophanes of Mytilene, the companion of Pompey) and made comparatively little use of Roman authorities.
History comes nearer to philosophy; and Aristotle's Constitutions were known to his enemy Timaeus, who attacked him for disparaging the descent of the Locrians of Italy, according to Polybius (xii.), who defended Aristotle.
Her models are Thucydides, Polybius and Xenophon, and her style exhibits the striving after Atticism characteristic of the period, with the result that the language is highly artificial.
2; Polybius ii.
Polybius (ii.-viii.) follows the Memoirs which Aratus wrote to justify his statesmanship, - Plutarch (Aratus and Cleomenes) used this same source and the hostile account of Phylarchus; Paus.
Polybius' Histories (x.
This story made Regulus to the later Romans the type of heroic endurance; but most historians regard it as insufficiently attested, Polybius being silent.
See Polybius i.
Polybius and the authors who copy him regard the Bastarnae as Galatae; Strabo, having learned of the Romans to distinguish Celts and Germans, first allows a German element; Tacitus expressly declares their German origin but says that the race was degraded by intermarriage with Sarmatians.
She was worshipped as OEa 4tX07rdrwwp; she and her husband as OEoi 4uX07rarOpEs (Polybius v.
Media, Polybius says, was defended by a chain of Greek cities from barbarian incursion (x.
In the middle of the 2nd century Roman Hellenism centred in the circle of Scipio Aemilianus, which included men like Polybius and the philosopher Panaetius.
33-49; Plutarch, Camillus, 17, 22, 28; Polybius i.
Some modern writers have supposed Pytheas to have been sent out, at public expense, in command of an expedition organized by the republic of Massilia; but there is no ancient authority for this, and Polybius, who had unquestionably seen the original work, expressly states that he had undertaken the voyage in a private capacity and with limited means.
All that we know concerning the voyage of Pytheas (apart from detached notices) is contained in a brief passage of Polybius, cited by Strabo, in which he tells us that Pytheas, according to his own statement, had not only visited Britain, but had personally explored a large part of it ("travelled all over it on foot," according to one reading of the text in Strabo, bk.
This last sentence has led some modern writers to suppose that he made two different voyages; but this is improbable; the expressions of Polybius imply that his explorations in both directions, first towards the north and afterwards towards the east, formed part of the same voyage.
Eratosthenes, indeed (276-196 B.C.), attached great value to his authority as to Britain and Spain, though doubting some of his statements; but Polybius (c. 204-122 B.C.) considered the whole work of Pytheas a tissue of fables, like that of Euhemerus concerning Panchaea; and even Strabo, in whose time the western regions of Europe were comparatively well known, adopted to a great extent the view of Polybius.
The statement that he proceeded along the coasts of Europe "from Gades to the Tanais" is evidently based upon the supposition that this would be a simple and direct course along the northern shores of Germany and Scythia - Polybius himself, in common with the other Greek geographers till a much later period, being ignorant of the projection of the Danish or Cimbric peninsula, and the circumnavigation that it involved - of all which no trace is found in the extant notices of Pytheas.
Polybius describes his triumphal progress (v.
Only Gaza withstood him, as it withstood Alexander; and Polybius (xvi.
That of Stephen) - and indeed elsewhere, too - are not " free compositions " of our author, the mere outcome of dramatic idealization such as ancient historians like Thucydides or Polybius allowed themselves.