From 1821 to 1891 the payment of at least a poll-tax was a condition precedent to the exercise of the suffrage.
If a second poll is necessary a relative majority is sufficient.
Any subdistrict, town or city of the fifth or sixth class may provide for a graded school by voting for an ad valorem and poll tax which is limited as to amount.
There is no doubt but that in the Maccabean times and onward 218 was the shekel; but the use of the word darkemon by Ezra and Nehemiah, and the probabilities of their case, point to the daragmaneh, 1/60 maneh or shekel of Assyria; and the mention of 1/3 shekel by Nehemiah as poll tax nearly proves that the 129 and not 218 grains is intended, as 218 is not divisible by 3.
The hut and poll taxes yield about £62,000 a year.
Among the other sources of revenue are a poll-tax of two dollars on each man between the ages of twenty-one and sixty, licences, an inheritance tax, rent of state lands and the income from invested funds received from the sale of state lands.
The constitution provides that no person less than 60 years of age shall be permitted to vote unless he has paid an annual poll-tax of one dollar for the two years next preceding the year in which he offers to vote.
Going outside Europe, an extreme instance of the results of combining a census with more definite administrative objects may be found in the census of China in 1711, when the population enumerated in connexion with a poll-tax and liability to military service, was returned as 28 millions; but forty years later, when the question was that of the measures for the relief of widespread distress, the corresponding total rose to 103 millions!
Poll results listed a mixed bag.
Poll taxes are levied by the counties and townships for school and local purposes.
One Gallup poll at the time said more people knew about the trial than knew the full name of the president.
A poll tax is required of all males between the ages of 21 and 60 years, one half of which goes to the county in which it is collected and the rest to the state.
The chief sources of revenue are taxes on realty, personalty and corporations, a poll-tax, and licences.
To these requirements the payment of a poll-tax has been added by legislative enactment, such an enactment having been authorized by the constitution.
Soon after his accession he abolished the distinctive Jewish dress, abrogated the poll-tax, admitted the Jews to military service and their children to the public schools, and in general opened the era of emancipation by the Toleranzpatent of 1782.
In 1906 a serious rebellion broke out in the colony, attributable ostensibly to the poll-tax, and spread to Zululand.
Peter the Great imposed a poll-tax on all the members of the rural population, making the proprietors responsible for the tax charged on their serfs; and the " free wandering people " who were not willing to enter the army were required to settle on the land either as members of a commune or as serfs of some proprietor.
Since 1906 a poll tax of £i a head is also levied on all males over eighteen, European or native.
In 1905 a poll tax of £1 on all adult males was imposed by the Natal legislature; this tax was the ostensible cause of a revolt in 1906 among the natives of Natal, who were largely of Zulu origin.
Taxes on imports and exports, not exceeding the equivalent of io% ad valorem, direct taxation of Europeans, and a poll tax on native adult males, a tax on ivory and the Government share in the exploitation of mines were the chief sources of revenue; the administrative services and interest on debt the largest items of expenditure.
The chief sources of revenue are customs, mining royalties, railways, native revenue (poll tax and passes), posts and telegraphs, stamp and transfer duties, land revenue and taxes on trades and professions.
Results of the poll-tax have often been considered as trust worthy substitutes for population returns, but Professor Oman has shown that little trust can be placed in these results.
(casale) the rustici were grouped in families (foci): the tenants paid from 4 to a of the crop, besides a poll-tax and labour-dues.
Aes, in its subsidiary sense of "polltax"), originally a class of Roman citizens not included in the thirty tribes of Servius Tullius, and subject to a poll-tax arbitrarily fixed by the censor.
As an instance he states that the commissioners of the poll-tax reported that there were only two-thirds as many contributaries in 1381 as in 1377.
The land tax is supplemented by a poll tax on the male population from 18 to 60 years of age, with the exception of immigrants during the first five years of their residence, religious teachers, schoolmasters, government servants and those unable to obtain their own livelihood.
Simply on the strength of his parliamentary reputation Gladstone was nominated, without his consent, for Manchester, and was placed at the bottom of the poll; but, having been at the same time nominated at Newark, was again returned.
The nomination at Oxford took place on the 29th of July, and at the close of the poll Sir Robert Inglis stood at the head, with Gladstone as his colleague.
A further deed poll providing for the removal of a General in the contingency of "mental incapacity" or other "unfitness," and for the election of a successor, was executed by Booth in July 1904.
The revenue for schools in 1907-08 was $8,020,229, of which $2,761,651 was from the state tax, $2,080,159 from the local tax, $1,640,969 from the one dollar poll tax on males between the ages of twenty-one and sixty, $481,899 from a state occupation tax, $4 2 9,3 6 5 from county funds, and $105,806 from tuition fees.
Revenue is chiefly derived from hut and poll taxes, R customs, wharfage dues, game licences and land tax.
The revenue of Netherlands India has been derived mainly from customs, excise, ground-tax, licences, poll-tax, &c., from monopolies - opium, salt and pawn-shops (the management of which began to be taken over by the government in 1903, in place of the previous system of farming-out), coffee, &c., railways, tin mines and forests, and from agricultural and other concessions.
The constitution of 1875 abolished the one-fifth revenue provision, made the support of the schools, except that derived from the land grant of 1819, and poll taxes, depend upon the appropriation of the legislature, and established separate schools for whites and blacks.
==Finance== One-half of the income of the state is derived from general taxes, the other sources of revenue being licences, a special school tax, poll tax and the lease of the convicts.
The same body draws up the list of males liable to the poll-tax and of the lands liable to land-tax, these being the chief sources of revenue.
To this sum the land and poll-tax and other direct taxes contributed £374,630.
To secure election a candidate must at the first voting poll an absolute majority and a number of votes equal to one-fourth of the number of electors.
The caliph Omar initiated in the 7th century a code which required Christians and Jews to wear peculiar dress, denied them the right to hold state offices or to possess land, inflicted a poll-tax on them, and while forbidding them to enter mosques, refused them the permission to build new places of worship for themselves.
Persecution was elevated into a system, a poll-tax was exacted, and the rabble was allowed (notably in 1336-1337) to give full vent to its fury.
The schools are supported by a poll-tax, by general appropriations, by local levies, and by the Chickasaw school fund.
It is true that the king had a revenue, collected by the vicomte and paid into the secretum or treasury - a revenue composed of tolls on the caravans and customs from the ports, of the profits of monopolies and the proceeds of justice, of poll-taxes on Jews and Mahommedans, and of the tributes paid by Mahommedan powers.
They are supposed by some to be identical with the curatores tribuum, and to have been the officials who, under the Servian organization, levied the war-tax (tributum) in the tribes and the poll-tax on the aerarii.
An annual poll-tax is also collected for the schools from every adult male.
The conquered peoples fell into an inferior caste, made to work for, and to pay for the subsistence of, their conquerors, as under the Arab domination; the principal taxes exacted from them were the kharaj, a tax of indeterminate amount upon realty, based on the value of lands owned by unbelievers - (in contradistinction to the tithe [ashar] which was a tax of fixed amount upon lands owned by believers) - and levied in payment of the privilege of gaining means of existence in a Mussulman country, and the jiziye, a compulsory payment, or poll-tax, to which believers were not subjected, in lieu of military service.
It was therefore decided that with the cardinals each nation should associate six delegates, and that the successful candidate should be required to poll two-thirds of the suffrages, not only in the Sacred College, but also in each of these five groups.
The following is a summary of the local budget of Cambodia The chief sources of revenue are the direct taxes, including the poll-tax and the taxes on the products of the soil, which together amounted to £172,636 in 1904.
Some capital snatches of verse are scattered throughout his novels, the best being "Poll put her arms akimbo" in Snarleyyow, and the "Hunter and the Maid" in Poor Jack.
Early in the year a farmer who had insisted that the Kaffirs on his farm should pay the poll-tax was murdered, and on the 8th of February some forty natives in the Richmond district forcibly resisted the collection of the tax and killed a subinspector of police and a trooper at Byrnetown.
As has been stated, it was ostensibly attributable to the poll-tax, but the causes were more deepseated.
The discontent of the rural labourers and of the poorer class of craftsmen in the towns, caused by the economic distress that followed the Black Death and the enactment of the Statute of Labourers in 1351, was brought to a head by the imposition of a poll tax in 1379 and again in 1381, and at the end of May in the latter year riots broke out at Brentwood in Essex; on the 4th of June similar violence occurred at Dartford; and on the 6th a mob several thousands strong seized the castle of Rochester and marched up the Medway to Maidstone.
The direct taxes, which go to the local budget of Annam, consist primarily of a poll-tax levied on all males over eighteen and below sixty years of age, and of a land-tax levied according to the quality and the produce of the holding.
When the poll-tax of 1379 was imposed the mayor was assessed as an earl and the aldermen as barons.
A separate deed poll, making the General sole trustee, was executed by Booth in regard to the property and funds of this branch of work.
Its character is distinctly democratic. The property qualification of state senators and the restriction of suffrage to those who have paid county or poll taxes are abolished; but suffrage is limited to male adults who can read the state constitution in English, and can write their names, unless physically disqualified, and who have registered.
No poll tax is levied for state purposes, but counties are authorized to levy such a tax for school purposes.
No man may vote in any election who has not by the 1st of February next preceding that election paid all poll taxes due from him to the state.
With some of the recommendations the Natal commissioners disagreed; in 1905, however, an act was passed by the Natal legislature imposing a poll-tax of £i on all males over 18 in the colony, except indentured Indians and natives paying hut-tax (which was 14s.
According to the constitution of 1901 the legislature is required to levy, in addition to the poll tax, an annual tax for education at the rate of 30 to 65 cents on the hundred dollars' worth of property, and practically every county in the state had made in 1906 an appropriation for its schools of a one mill tax on $loo.