Closely associated with the colour is the polarization of the light from the sky.
In other directions the polarization becomes less and less complete as we approach the vertical.
Of this nature are the neutral points, where the polarization changes character, observed by F.
On the other hand, that the direction of complete polarization should be independent of the refracting power of the matter composing the cloud has been considered mysterious.
It must be noticed, however, that the angle of maximum polarization would be about 76° instead of 90°.
This reverse electromotive force of polarization is produced in all electrolytes when the passage of the current changes the nature of the electrodes.
As regards the polarization of the dispersed light as dependent on the angle at which it is emitted, we find that although, when terms of the second order are included, the scattered light no longer vanishes in the same direction as before, the peculiarity is not lost but merely transferred to another direction.
In the early stages of the precipitation the polarization is complete in a perpendicular direction, and incomplete in oblique directions.
After an interval the polarization begins to be incomplete in the perpendicular direction, the light which reaches the eye when the nicol is set to minimum transmission being of a beautiful blue, much richer than anything that can be seen in the earlier stages.
In the first place, with a given size of particles, the direction of complete polarization indicated by (23) is a function of the colour of the light, the value of 0 being 3 or 4 times as large for the violet as for the red end of the spectrum.
If we begin with a blue glass, we may observe the gradually increasing obliquity of the direction of maximum polarization; and then by exchanging the blue glass for a red one, we may revert to the original condition of things, and observe the transition from perpendicularity to obliquity over again.
The normal polarization at the zenith, as dependent upon the position of the sun, was the foundation of Sir C. Wheatstone's polar clock.
He also carried out many experiments in magneto-optics, and succeeded in showing, what Faraday had failed to detect, the rotation under the influence of magnetic force of the plane of polarization in certain gases and vapours.
A third class of electric wave detector depends upon the power of electric oscillations to annul the electrolytic polarization of electrodes of small surface immersed in an electrolyte.
If, however, one electrode of this cell is connected to the earth and the other to a receiving antenna and electric waves allowed to fall on the antenna, the oscillations passing through the electrolytic cell will remove the polarization and L temporarily decrease the resistance of the cell.
The most important subjects of his inquiries are enumerated by Forbes under the following five heads: - (1) The laws of polarization by reflection and refraction, and other quantitative laws of phenomena; (2) The discovery of the polarizing structure induced by heat and pressure; (3) The discovery of crystals with two axes of double refraction, and many of the laws of their phenomena, including the connexion of optical structure and crystalline forms; (4) The laws of metallic reflection; (5) Experiments on the absorption of light.
He was especially interested in questions relating to the polarization of light, and his observations in this field, which gained him the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1840, laid the foundations of the polarimetric analysis of sugar.
He also engaged in work on magnetism, the polarization of light, phosphorescence and the absorption of light in crystals.
If we eliminate the reverse electromotive forces of polarization at the two electrodes, the conduction of electricity through electrolytes is found to conform to Ohm's law; that is, once the polarization is overcome, the current is proportional to the electromotive force applied to the bulk of the liquid.
Hence there can be no reverse forces of polarization inside the liquid itself, such forces being confined to the surface of the electrodes.
Only when the applied electromotive force exceeds this reverse force of polarization, will a permanent steady current pass through the liquid, and visible chemical decomposition proceed.
It seems that this reverse electromotive force of polarization is due to the deposit on the electrodes of minute quantities of the products of chemical decomposition.
To pass a steady current in the direction opposite to this electromotive force of polarization, the applied electromotive force E must exceed that of polarization E', and the excess E - E' is the effective electromotive force of the circuit, the current being, in accordance with Ohm's law, proportional to the applied electromotive force and represented by (E - E')/ R, where R is a constant called the resistance of the circuit.
The opposing force of polarization is about 1.7 volt, but, when the plates are disconnected and used as a source of current, the electromotive force they give is only about 1.07 volt.
The phenomena of polarization are thus seen to be due to the changes of surface produced, and are correlated with the differences of potential which exist at any surface of separation between a metal and an electrolyte.
By determining the rotation of the plane of polarization of a solution, or, chemically, by taking advantage of its property of reducing alkaline copper solutions.
Among other subjects at which he subsequently worked were the absorption of gases in blood (1837-1845), the expansion of gases by heat (1841-1844), the vapour pressures of water and various solutions (1844-1854), thermo-electricity (1851), electrolysis (1856), induction of currents (1858-1861), conduction of heat in gases (1860), and polarization of heat (1866-1868).
These investigations, together with his discovery of the "wonderful phenomenon" of polarization, are recorded in his Traite de la lumiere, published at Leiden in 1690, but composed in 1678.
The intensity of a field may be measured by the rotation of the plane of polarization of light passing in the direction of the magnetic force through a transparent substance.
De Phys., Paris, 1900, p. 561) that the true effect of magnetization is liable to be disguised by secondary or parasitic phenomena, arising chiefly from polarization of the electrodes and from local variations in the concentration and magnetic condition of the electrolyte; these may be avoided by working with weak solutions, exposing only a small surface in a non-polar region of the metal, and substituting a capillary electrometer for the galvanometer generally used.
Another was the magnetic rotation of the plane of polarization of light, which was effected in 1845, and for the first time established a relation between light and magnetism.
The polar clock, devised for use in place of a sun-dial, applies the fact that the plane of polarization of sky light is always 90° from the position of the sun; hence by measuring the azimuthal angle of the plane, even when the sun is below the horizon, correct apparent solar time may be obtained.
In 1871 he began to turn his attention to experimental physics, his earlier researches bearing upon the polarization of light and his later work upon the electrical discharge in rarefied gases.
Later still he engaged in the study of the relations between chemical constitution and rotation of the plane of polarization in a magnetic field, and enunciated a law expressing the variation of such rotation in bodies belonging to homologous series.
A train of ideas which strongly impressed itself on Clerk Maxwell's mind, in the early stages of his theoretical views, was put forward by Lord Kelvin in 1858; he showed that the special characteristics of the rotation of the plane of polarization, discovered by Faraday in light propagated along a magnetic field, viz.
It has in fact been found, with the very great precision of which optical experiment is capable, that all terrestrial optical phenomenareflexion, refraction, polarization linear and circular, diffraction - are entirely unaffected by the direction of the earth's motion, while the same result has recently been extended to electrostatic forces; and this is our main experimental clue.
A dielectric substance is electrically polarized by a field of electric force, the atomic poles being made up of the displaced positive and negative intrinsic charges in the atom: the polarization per unit volume (f',g',h') may be defined on the analogy of magnetism, and d/dt(f',g',h') thus constitutes true electric current of polarization, i.e.
The establishment and convection of a single polar atom constitutes in fact a quasi-magnetization, in addition to the polarization current as above defined, the negative poles completing the current circuits of the positive ones.
Le Blanc has shown, however, that the effect of ammonium amalgam on the magnitude of polarization of a battery is comparable with that of the amalgams of the alkali metals.
IIe was distinguished for his researches on polarization and on the artificial formation of minerals.
Dielectric constant.-Since all electric charge consists in a state of strain or polarization of the dielectric, it is evident that the physical state and chemical composition of the insulator must be of great importance in determining electrical phenomena.
Suppose that the dielectric has a constant K, then we must multiply both sides by K and the expression for the energy per unit of volume of the field is equivalent to z DE where D is the displacement or polarization in the dielectric.