The first part of the epistle deals generally with magnetic attractions and repulsions, with the polarity of the stone, and with the supposed influence of the poles of the heavens upon the poles of the stone.
Tyndall's first original work in physical science was in his experiments with regard to magnetism and diamagnetic polarity, on which he was chiefly occupied from 1850 to 1855.
The Arabic geographer, Edrisi, who lived about r roo, is said by Boucher to give an account, though in a confused manner, of the polarity of the magnet (Hallam, Mid.
(25) Unless the path of the induction is entirely inside the metal, free magnetic poles are developed at those parts of the metal where induction enters and leaves, the polarity being south at the entry and north at the exit of the flux.
Weber's theory, the molecules of a ferromagnetic metal are small permanent magnets, the axes of which under ordinary conditions are turned indifferently in every direction, so that no magnetic polarity is exhibited by the metal as a whole; a magnetic force acting upon the metal tends to turn the axes of the little magnets in one direction, and thus the entire piece acquires the properties of a magnet.
When Clerk Maxwell pointed out the way to the common origin of optical and electrical phenomena, these equations naturally came to repose on an electric basis, the connexion having been first definitely exhibited by FitzGerald in 1878; and according as the independent variable was one or other of the vectors which represent electric force, magnetic force or electric polarity, they took the form appropriate to one or other of the elastic theories above mentioned.
He also found that the polarity which minerals receive from heat has a relation to the secondary forms of their crystals - the tourmaline, for example, having its resinous pole at the summit of the crystal which has three faces.
- Noticing an analogy between the polarity of the voltaic pile and that of the magnet, philosophers had long been anxious to discover a relation between the two, but twenty years elapsed after the invention of the pile before Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851), professor of natural philosophy in the university of Copenhagen, made in 1819 the discovery which has immortalized his name.
Ampere had already previously shown that a spiral conductor or solenoid when traversed by an electric current possesses magnetic polarity, and that two such solenoids act upon one another when traversed by electric currents as if they were magnets.
T Malus gave the name of polarization, as he attributed it, on the emission theory of light, to a kind of polarity of the light-corpuscles.
A small permanent magnet is always liable to become demagnetized, or have its polarity reversed by the action of lightning.
The wire will in fact become temporarily magnetized by induction, that end of it which is nearest to the pole of the magnet acquiring opposite polarity, and behaving as if it were the pole of a permanent magnet.
He quotes a passage on the polarity of the lodestone from a treatise translated by Albertus Magnus, attributed by the latter to Aristotle, but apparently only an Arabic compilation from the works of various philosophers.
The magnet at sea; 2 and before the middle of the r3th century Gauthier d'Espinois alludes to its polarity, as if generally known, in the lines: "Tous autresi comme l'aimant decoit [detourne] L'aiguillette par force de vertu, A ma dame tor le mont [monde] retenue Qui sa beaute connoit et apercoit."
The most interesting of his discoveries, now generally known as the " Wiedemann effect," is the following: If we magnetize longitudinally a straight wire which is fixed at one end and free at the other, and then pass an electric current through the wire (or first pass the current and then magnetize), the free end of the wire will twist in a certain direction depending upon circumstances: if the wire is of iron, and is magnetized (with a moderate force) so that its free end has north polarity, while the current through it passes from the fixed to the free end, then the free end as seen from the fixed end will twist in the direction of the hands of a watch; if either the magnetization or the current is reversed, the direction of the twist will be reversed.
Further, the eye is endowed with polarity, by which its activity is divided into two parts qualitatively distinct.