Nares, Voyage to the Polar Sea (2 vols.
Then he annexed its colonies and thereby extended his dominions to the Polar Ocean and the Ural Mountains.
This voyage of the middle of the 9th century deserves to be held in happy memory, for it unites the first Norwegian polar explorer with the first English collector of travels.
The second German polar expedition in 1870, under Carl Christian Koldewey 5 (1837-1908), reached 77° N.
This formation, one of the most widely spread in polar lands, though the most local in Greenland, is also the best known feature in its geology.
Glareanus (1510) was the first to employ an equidistant zenithal polar projection.
Also he showed that if such an antenna had its horizontal part swivelled round into various directions the current created in a distant receiver antenna varied with the azimuth, and when plotted out in the form of a polar curve gave a curve of a peculiar figure-of-8 shape.
Under the heading of Polar Regions, and only the names of Martin Frobisher (1576), John Davis (1585), Henry Hudson (1607) and William Baffin (1616) need be mentioned here in order to preserve the complete conspectus of the history of discovery.
He proved conclusively that any southern continent that might exist lay under the polar ice.
The connexion that seemed to be first established was between variations in the quantity of water transported from the tropical to the sub-polar Atlantic and variations in the intensit y of solar radiation.
On the polar side of the high-pressure area a west wind drift is under the control of the " roaring forties," and on reaching South Africa part of this is deflected and sent northwards along the west coast as the cold Benguella current which rejoins the equatorial.
Nature and mind (which are the two sides, or polar directions, of the one absolute) are each viewed as an activity advancing by an uninterrupted succession of stages.
The process is essentially a polar linear action, or differentiation from a common centre.
The polar regions travelled a little from west to east relatively to the equatorial, which lagged behind.
A depression surrounds the little-known south polar region in a continuous ring and extends northwards in three vast hollows lying between the arms of the elevated area.
Petrunkevich (1901-1903), the second polar nucleus uniting with one daughter-nucleus of the first polar body gives rise to the germ-cells of the parthenogenetically-produced male.
Its cartesian equation, when the line joining the two fixed points is the axis of x and the middle point of this line is the origin, is (x 2 + y 2)2 = 2a 2 (x 2 - y 2) and the polar equation is r 2 = 2a 2 cos 20.
The unusual glaciation of the east coast is evidently owing to the north polar current carrying the ice masses from the north polar basin 4 south-westward along the land, and giving it an entirely arctic climate down to Cape Farewell.
This surface drifting water is cold and as it enters into intermediate zones it remains colder than the water in situ there and is therefore denser; it sinks below the surface and continues to flow along the bottom either back to the polar regions or towards the equator.
There will be great outbursts of polar ice, but this will melt at higher latitudes than in the periods when the tide-generating force is minimal.
In general the plankton - and especially the phyto-plankton of the polar and temperate seas - is much more abundant than is that of the sub-tropical and tropical zones.
The prevailing winds in this region, which the sea traverses longitudinally, are westerly, but the sea itself causes the formation of bands of low barometric pressure during the winter season, within which cyclonic disturbances frequently develop, while in summer the region comes under the influence of the polar margin of the tropical high pressure belt.
The normal polarization at the zenith, as dependent upon the position of the sun, was the foundation of Sir C. Wheatstone's polar clock.
Runs mathematically straight and points almost absolutely true for the Polar star.
There is no reunion of the second polar nucleus with the female pronucleus, but, according to the recent work of L.
Coradi's " Polar Planimeter," one of the most trustworthy instruments of the kind.'
Generally from to 24 gores and two small segments for the polar regions printed on vellum paper are used for each globe.
On the original only equator, ecliptics, tropics, polar circles and one meridian 80° to the west of Lisbon are laid down.
For purposes of measurement the polar boundaries are taken to be the Arctic and Antarctic circles, although in discussing the configuration and circulation it is impossible to adhere strictly to these limits.
The Atlantic anticyclone is, therefore, at its weakest in winter, and on its polar side the polar eddy becomes a trough of low pressure, extending roughly from Labrador to Iceland and Jan Mayen, and traversed by a constant succession of cyclones.
She sailed in June 1853, and passing up Smith Sound at the head of Baffin Bay advanced into the enclosed sea which now bears the name of Kane Basin, thus establishing the Polar route of many future Arctic expeditions.
From this point a large area of open water was seen which was believed to be an "open Polar Sea," a chimera which played an important and delusive role in subsequent explorations.
The maritime discoveries and surveys of that age of great discoveries were laid down upon so-called " plane-charts," that is, charts having merely equidistant parallels indicated upon them, together with the equator, the tropics and polar FIG.
Davis, Polaris (Hall's) North Polar Expedition (Washington, 1876).
The reason is to be found in its geographical position, a cold ice-covered polar current 68' running south along the land, while not far outside there is an open warmer sea, a circumstance which, while producing a cold climate, must also give rise to much precipitation, the land being C', thus exposed to the alternate erosion of a rough atmosphere and large glaciers.
Feilden notes as suggestive that, though the explorers have not met with this formation on the northern shores of Greenland, yet it was observed that a continuation of the direction of the known strike of the limestones of Feilden peninsula, carried over the polar area, passes through the neighbourhood of Spitsbergen, where the formation occurs, and contains certain species identical with those of the Grinnell Land rocks of this horizon.
In the polar areas the melting of sea-ice and of ice formed by precipitation lowers the density of the seawater and causes a difference of level which sets up streaming movements towards the equator.
The following species, none of which are found in European Russia, are characteristic of the tundras - arbutus (Arctostaphilus alpina), heaths or andomedas (Cassiope tetragona and C. hypnoides), Phyllodoce taxifolia, Loiseleuria procumbens, a species of Latifolium, a Polar azalea (Osmothamnus fragrans) and a Polar willow (Salix arctica).
The ï¿½th polar of ax with regard to y is n-ï¿½ a aye i.e.
The repetition of the process brought the same results.
The two classes obviously represent respectively systems of polar and rectangular coordinates.
Psychrophytes.These include the plants which grow on the lv ild soils of subniveal and polar districts.
+1~ ii 1n a, Antipodal cell; sp, polar nuclei; eing e sma er.
In all cases of polar nuclei.
The red type is peculiar to America, inhabiting every climate from polar to equatorial, and containing representatives of many stages of culture which had apparently developed without the aid or interference of people of any other race until the close of the 15th century.
Polar bodies were first observed in the eggs of Hexapoda by F.
It appears that in parthenogenetic eggs two polar nuclei are formed.
If they be reckoned as integral parts of Greenland, then the north coast, fronting the polar sea, culminates about 83° 40' N.
Valuable fur is obtained from the white and blue fox, the skin of the eider-duck and the polar bear.
When the warmer interglacial periods recurred the polar and continental ice-caps melted and the sea-level became raised again - that is, there was submergence of the eroded plateaux formed as indicated above.
At the polar meteorological station of Sagastyr, in the delta of the Lena (73° 23' N.), the following average temperatures have been observed: January - 34.3° F.
Despite being polar opposites, they were both honorable to the core and two of the most powerful Naturals ever discovered.
Jonny, the Black God and polar opposite of my brother, Damian, the White God.
The polar equation is r= I -f - 2 cos 0 and the form of the curve is shown in the figure.