Pol.), 22-24, 41; Plutarch, Aristides; Cornelius Nepos, Vita Aristidis.
See Alexander Kraushar, Prince Repnin in Poland (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1900); F.
The capital of the province was Arras, and the other important places were Saint-Omer, Bethune, Aire, Hesdin, Bapaume, Lens, Lillers, Saint-Pol and SaintVenant.
Of St Pol by road, famous on account of the victory, on the 25th of October 1415, of Henry V.
Paris was dominated at that time by the party of the "butchers," or Cabochiens, which had been organized and armed by the count of Saint-Pol, brother-in-law of John the Fearless.
Czacki (Pol.) (Cracow, 1854); Letters written during Emigration, 1792-1794 (Pol.) (Posen, 1872).
See Ignacz Badeni, Necrology of Hugo Kollontaj (Pol.) (Cracow, 1819); Henryk Schmitt, Review of the Life and Works of Kollontaj (Pol.) (Lemberg, 1860); Wojciek Grochowski, "Life of Kollontaj" (Pol.) in Tygod Illus.
See Jozef Ignacz Kraszewski, Lithuania under Witowt (Pol.) (Wilna, 1850); Augustin Theiner, Vetera Monumenta Poloniae (Rome, 1860-1864); Karol Szajnocha, Jadwiga and Jagiello (Pol.) (Lemberg, 1850-1856); Teodor Narbutt, History of the Lithuanian Nation (Pol.) (Wilna, 1835-1836); Codex epistolaris Witoldi Magni (ed.
Thesby de Belcour, The Confederates of Bar (Pol.) (Cracow, 1895); Charles Francois Dumouriez, Memoires et correspondance (Paris, 1834).
See Aleksander Semkowicz, Critical Considerations of the Polish Works of Dlugosz (Pol.; Cracow, 1874); Michael Bobrzynski and Stanislaw Smolka, Life of Dlugosz and his Position in Literature (Pol.; Cracow, 1893).
See Jan Leniek, The Congress of Visegrdd (Pol.), (Lemberg, 1884); J.
Kochanowski, Casimir the Great (Pol.), (Warsaw, 1900); Kazimierz J.
Gorzycki, The Annexation of Red Russia by Casimir the Great (Pol.), (Lemberg, 1889); Stanislaw Kryzanowski, The Embassy of Casimir the Great to Avignon (Pol.), (Cracow, 1900).
See Ludwik Jenike, Stephen Czarniecki (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1891); Michal Dymitr Krajewski, History of Stephen Czarniecki (Pol.), (Cracow, 1859).
Iv.; Lubomir Gadon, Prince Adam Czartoryski during the Insurrection of November (Pol.) (Cracow, 1900).
- The best general history of Poland is still Jozef Szujski's monumental History of Poland according to the latest investigations (4 vols., Pol., Lemberg, 1865-1866), a work which has all the authority of careful criticism and easy scholarship. It adopts, throughout, the conservative-monarchical standpoint.
Szujski's book has superseded even Joachim Lelewel's learned History of Poland (Pol., Brussels, 1837), of which there are excellent French (Paris, 1844) and German (Leipzig, 1846) editions.
The best contemporary general history is August Sokolowski's Illustrated History of Poland (Pol., Vienna, 1896-1900).
Scholars desiring to explore for themselves the sources of Polish history from the nth century to the 18th have immense fields of research lying open before them in the Acta historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia (1878, &c.), the Scriptores rerum polonicarum (1872, &c.), and the Historical Dissertations (Pol., 1874, &c.), all three collections published, under the most careful editorship, by the University of Cracow.
To the same order belong Ludwik Finkel's Fontes rerum polonicarum (Lemberg, 1901, &c.), and the innumerable essays and articles in The Historical Quarterly Review of Poland (Pol., Lemberg, 1887, &c.).
The soundest history of Lithuania, before its union with Poland, is still Lelewel's History of Lithuania (Pol., Leipzig, 1839), of which a French translation was published at Paris in 1861.
His Historical Sketches of the Eleventh Century (Pol., Cracow, 1904) is a very notable work.
A good guide to the history of the Jagiellonic period, 1386-1572, is also Adolf Pawinski's Poland in the 15th Century (Pol., Warsaw, 1883-1886).
The best Polish work on the subject is Wincenty Zakrzewski's The Reign of Stephen Bathory (Pol., Cracow, 1887).
Another firstclass work, relating to the same period and dealing specifically with the mode of warfare of heroic Poland, is Jozef Tretiak's History of the War of Chocim (Pol., Lemberg, 1893).
Maryan Dubiecki's Karol Prozor (Pol., Cracow, 1897) shows with what self-sacrificing devotion the gentry and people supported Kosciuszko's rising.
For more complete bibliography see Jozef Korzeniowski's Catalogus actorum et documentarum res gestas Poloniae illusirantium (Cracow, 1889), and Ludwik Finkel's Bibliography of Polish History (Pol., Lemberg, 1891).
Chodkiewicz (Pol.; 4th ed., Cracow, 1857-1858); Lukasz Golebiowski, The Moral Side of J.
Chodkiewicz as indicated by his Letters (Pol.; Warsaw, 1 854).
See Jozef Maczynski, Life and Death of Joseph Chlopicki (Pol.) (Cracow, 1858); Ignacy Pradzynski, The Four Last Polish Commanders (Pol.) (Posen, 1865).
Of Warsaw for 1863; Stanislaw Przylenski, Memorials of the Koniecpolskis (Pol.) (Lemberg, 1842).
See Ludwik Finkel, Characteristics of Sigismund Augustus (Pol.) (Lemberg, 1888); Letters to Nicholas Radziwill (Pol.) (Wilna, 1842); Geheime Briefe an Hozyus, Gesandten am Hofe des Kaisers Karl V.
(Wadowice, 1850); Adam Darowski, Bona Sforza (Pol.) (Rome, 1904).
(Pol.) (Breslau, 1836).
(Vienna, 1904); Zygmunt Celichowski, Materials for the history of the reign of Sigismund the Old (Pol.) (Posen, 1900); Adolf Pawinski, The youthful years of Sigismund the Old (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1893); Adam Darowski, Bona Sforza (1904).
See also Brau de Saint-Pol Lias, fle de Sumatra (Paris, 1884); E.
Pol de Mont with the title of Modernites (1898).
See Stanislaw Gabryel Kozlowski, Life of Stanislaus Zolkiewski (Pol.) (Cracow, 1904).
Won back England by the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, Charles the Bold besieged Amiens, and Louis was glad to make a truce, availing himself of the double dealing of the constable, the count of Saint Pol, who, trying to win an independent position for himself in Picardy, refused his aid to Charles unless he would definitely join the French nobility in another rising against the king.
The count of Saint Pol, who had continued to play his double part, was surrendered by Charles to Louis, and executed, as was also Jacques d'Armagnac, duke of Nemours.
(Pol.) (Cracow, 1850-185).
Kraushar, Prince Repnin in Poland, 1764-8 (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1900); "Correspondence with Frederick the Great and others" (Rus.
(Pol.) (Cracow, 1895); V.
(Pol.) (Cracow, 1845).
Szelagowski, The Fight for the Baltic (Pol.; Warsaw, 1904); K.
The whole duchy was formerly divided into nine bishoprics Rennes, Dol, Nantes, St Malo and St Brieuc, in Upper Brittany, and Treguier, Vannes, Quimper and St Pol de Leon in Lower.
1 444); (3) to Catherine of Luxemburg, daughter of Peter of Luxemburg, count of St Pol, who survived him.
Consider, also, the case in Cambodia under Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge.
Before his death, Pol Pot conceded that his regime certainly killed people, but ''to say that millions died is too much.''