RENE DESCARTES (1596-1650), French philosopher, was born at La Haye, in Touraine, midway between Tours and Poitiers, on the 31st of March 1596, and died at Stockholm on the 1th of February 1650.
He was now firmly established in the favour of the king, who gave him successively the abbacy of St Severin, in the diocese of Poitiers, the office of almoner to the dauphiness, and in 1685 the bishopric of Lavaur, from which he was in 1687 promoted to that of Nimes.
Within two years Meaux, Poitiers, Angers, les ties de Saintonge, Agen, Bourges, Issoudun, Aubigny, Blois, Tours, Lyon, Orleans and Rouen were organized.
Some doctrinal differences having arisen in the church at Poitiers, Antoine de Chandieu, First minister at Paris, went to compose them, and, as the General .
The zone of level country extending from Reims and Troyes to Angers and Poitiers, with the exception of the Loire valley and the Brie, receives less than 24 in.
BORDEAUX - Agen, Angoulme, Poitiers, Prigueux, La Rochelle, Luon.
The Orleans, running from Paris to Orleans, and thence serving Bordeaux via Tours, Poitiers and Angoulflme, Nantes via Tours and Angers, and Montauban and Toulouse via Vierzon and Limoges.
There are 2 faculties of Protestant theology (Paris and Montauban); 12 faculties of law (Paris, Aix, Bordeaux, Caen, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 3 faculties of medicine (Paris, Montpellier and Nancy), and 4 joint faculties of medicine and pharmacy (Bordeaux, Lille, Lyons, Toulouse); 15 faculties of sciences (Paris, Besancon, Bor~ deaux, Caen, Clermont, Dijon, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Marseilles, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 15 faculties of letters (at the same towns, substituting Aix for Marseilles).
The Terre d'Auvergne was first an appanage of Count Alphonse of Poitiers (1241-1271), and in 1360 was erected into a duchy in the peerage of France (duch y -pairie) by King John II.
When, however, he was again attacked by Charles Martel, the Saracens renewed their ravages, and Odo was defeated near Bordeaux; he was compelled to crave protection from Charles, who took up this struggle and gained his momentous victory at Poitiers in 732.
The Latin West was scarcely less productive; it is enough to mention Hilary of Poitiers, Ambrose of Milan, Augustine of Hippo, Leo of Rome, Jerome, Rufinus, and a father lately restored to his place in patristic literature, Niceta of Remesiana.'
He was created count of Poitiers in 1356, and was made the king's lieutenant in southern France, though the real power rested chiefly with John of Armagnac, whose daughter Jeanne he married in 1360.
He decorated the Sainte Chapelle at Bourges; he built the Hotel de Nesle in Paris, and palaces at Poitiers, Bourges, Mehun-sur-Yevre and elsewhere.
She left him when he unjustly killed her brother, and fled to Medardus, bishop of Poitiers, who, notwithstanding the danger of the act, consecrated her as a nun.
Radegunda stayed in Poitiers, founded a monastery there, and lived for a while in peace.
After teaching for about twenty years in Chartres, he lectured on dialectics and theology in Paris (from 1137), and in 1141 returned to Poitiers, being elected bishop in the following year.
1257; see also Abbe Berthaud, Gilbert de la Porree (Poitiers, 1892); B.
Thousands had joined this new Crusade, which should deal the final blow to Mahommedanism: among the rest came the first of the troubadours, William IX., Count of Poitiers, to gather copy for his muse, and even some, like Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, who had joined the First Crusade, but had failed to reach Jerusalem.
An attempt was made at the council of Poitiers in 1076 to allay the agitation caused by the controversy, but it failed, and Berengar narrowly escaped death in a tumult.
Returning to Normandy, Charles was partly responsible for some unrest in the duchy, and in April 1356 he was treacherously seized by the French king at Rouen, remaining in captivity until November 1357, when John, after his defeat at Poitiers, was a prisoner in England.
The cycle of twenty or more chansons which form the geste of Guillaume reposes on the traditions of the Arab invasions of the south of France, from the battle of Poitiers (732) under Charles Martel onwards, and on the French conquest of Catalonia from the Saracens.
Of the original authorities the most important are the Gesta Willelmi, by William of Poitiers (ed.
Abelard, Peter Lombard, Gilbert de la Porree and Peter of Poitiers he calls the " four labyrinths of France."
Peter of Poitiers, the pupil of Peter the Lombard, flourished about 1160-1170.
By the heiress of the Tonis he left at his death in 1315 a son Earl Thomas, who distinguished himself at Crecy and Poitiers, was marshal of the English host, and, with his brother John, one of the founders of the order of the Garter.
Ten years after this, one of the most famous scenes in the streets of London occurred, when Edward the Black Prince brought the French King John and other prisoners after the battle of Poitiers to England.
The chivalry of France, undisciplined and careless of the lesson of Crecy and Poitiers, was quickly stung into action, and the French mounted men charged, only to be driven back in confusion.
From that time he was under the influence of two personages, who dominated him completely for the remainder of his life - Diane de Poitiers, his mistress, and Anne de Montmorency, his mentor.
By de la Ferriere, Paris, 1880), of Diane de Poitiers (ed.
It has not been proved that he was the lover of Diane de Poitiers, nor does the story of " La belle Ferronniere " appear to rest on any historical foundation.'
This is seen in Ambrose of Milan, with whom may be named Hilary of Poitiers and Gaudentius of Brescia, the friend of Chrysostom, and a link between him and Ambrose.
He studied law, theology and science at the university of Poitiers from 1536 to 1539; then, after some travel, attended the universities of Bologna and Padua, receiving the doctorate from the latter in 1548.
In the words of Hilary of Poitiers, " Faith gathers strength through opposition."
His exploits sank into insignificance as compared with those of his son, whose victory at Poitiers, on the 19th of September 1356, resulted in the captivity of King John, and forced the French to accept a new truce.
On the completion of his studies in Iaw at Poitiers Vieta began his career as an advocate in his native town.
Soon afterwards he received baptism, and two years later,, having left the army, he joined Hilary of Poitiers, who wished to make him a deacon, but at his own request ordained him to the humbler office of an exorcist.
Between 360 and 370 he was again with Hilary at Poitiers, and founded in the neighbourhood the monasterium locociagense (Licuge).
Henry being completely under the influence of his mistress, Diane de Poitiers, she had little authority.
Flammermont in Etudes critiques sur les sources de l'histoire du xviii e siecle: Les Memoires de Mme Campan, in the Bulletin de la Faculte des lettres de Poitiers (4th year, 1886, pp. 56, 109); J.
Round, Feudal England; and, for original authorities, the works of Orderic Vitalis and William of Poitiers, and of Florence of Worcester; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; William of Malmesbury's Gesta pontificum, and Lanfranc's works, ed.
It was bounded on the north by the countship of Maine, on the east by that of Touraine, on the south by that of Poitiers and by the Mauges, on the west by the countship of Nantes.
Authorities.-(I) Principal Sources: The history of Anjou may be told partly with the aid of the chroniclers of the neighbouring provinces, especiall y those of Normandy (William of Poitiers, William of Jumieges, Ordericus Vitalis) and of Maine (especially Actus pontificum Cenomannis in urbe degentium).
Alcuin attributes the authorship of the Latin form - the Gloria in Excelsis - to St Hilary of Poitiers (died 367).
Of Aquitaine, the most powerful lord of southern France, who urged its adoption at the Councils of Limoges (994) and Poitiers (999).
He was then taken to Europe and his brother Bertrand gave him the countship of Rouergue; in his tenth year, upon Bertrand's death (1112), he succeeded to the countship of Toulouse and marquisate of Provence, but Toulouse was taken from him by William IX., count of Poitiers, in 1114.
A château of the 18th century occupies the site of an older one in which Diana of Poitiers, mistress of Henry II., resided.
In France the most famous early baptistery is St Jean at Poitiers, and other early examples exist at Riez, Frejus and Aix.
1369), was one of the first knights of the order of the Garter, and earned a great reputation as a soldier, specially distinguishing himself at the battle of Poitiers in 1356.
After the alliance between Charles and Odo on the field of Poitiers, the mayor of the palace left Aquitaine to Odo's son Hunald, who paid homage to him.
By his able policy Odo succeeded in arresting their progress for some years; but a new vali, Abdur Rahman, a member of an extremely fanatical sect, resumed the attack, reached Poitiers, and advanced on Tours, the holy town of Gaul.
Agenais and southern Saintonge, which fell to the Crown by the death of Alfonse of Poitiers in 1276, as part of his vast possessions in Aquitaine and Languedoc, were ceded to Edward I.
An interest in Latin literature lived longest in Gaul, where schools of learning flourished as early as the 1st century at Autun, Lyons, Toulouse, Nimes, Vienne, Narbonne and Marseilles; and, from the 3rd century onwards, at Trier, Poitiers, Besancon and Bordeaux.
When he was twentythree, however, he received permission to go to Poitiers to study law, no doubt with a view to his obtaining perferment through his kinsman the Cardinal Jean du Bellay.
At Poitiers he came in contact with the humanist Marc Antoine Muret, and with Jean Salmon Macrin (1490-1557), a Latin poet famous in his day.
It was probably in 1547 that du Bellay met Ronsard in an inn on the way to Poitiers, an event which may justly be regarded as the starting-point of the French school of Renaissance poetry.
In 1559 du Bellay published at Poitiers La Nouvelle Maniere de faire son profit des lettres, a satirical epistle translated from the Latin of Adrien Turnebe, and with it Le Poete courtisan, which introduced the formal satire into French poetry.
From Paris he proceeded to Poitiers (1566) to study civil law, and though only twenty-one he was apparently at once made a regent in the college of St Marceon.
He founded several monasteries, and a similar work was also performed by St Emmeran, bishop of Poitiers; with the result that before long the bulk of the people professed Christianity and relations were established between Bavaria and Rome.
ARTHUR RANC (1831-1908), French politician and writer, was born at Poitiers on the 20th of December 1831, and was educated for the law.
Chilperic retrieved his position, took from Austrasia Tours and Poitiers and some places in Aquitaine, and fostered discord in the kingdom of the east during the minority of Childebert II.
The two armies met in 507 at the Campus Vogladensis, near Poitiers, where the Goths were defeated, and their king, who took to flight, was overtaken and slain, it is said, by Clovis himself.
But in October 732 their march was checked between Tours and Poitiers by Charles Martel and after some days of skirmishing a fierce but indecisive battle was fought.