Punire, to punish, from poena, punishment, Gr.
The Pentecostal inspiration has been construed as a providential antithesis to the confusion of tongues - an idea which Grotius expressed in the words: "Poena linguarum dispersit homines; donum linguarum dispersos in unum populum collegit."
The arbitrator ex compromisso sumptus had no coercive jurisdiction, and in order to make his award effective, the agreement of reference was confirmed by a stipulation and usually provided a penalty (poena, petunia compromissa) in case of disobedience.
This salutary doctrine, however, has undoubtedly been obscured to some extent by the phrase a poena et a culpa, which, from the 13th century to the Reformation, was applied to Plenary Indulgences.
The prima-facie meaning of the phrase is that the Indulgence itself frees the sinner not only from the temporal penalty (poena) but also from the guilt (culpa) of all his sins: and the fact that a phrase so misleading remained so long current shows the truth of Father Thurston's remark: " The laity cared little about the analysis of it, but they knew that the a culpa et poena was the name for the biggest thing in the nature of an Indulgence which it was possible to get " (Dublin Review, Jan.
And Cardinal Cusanus speak of absolution a poena et a culpa as a separate thing from (a) plenary absolution and (b) absolution from " reserved " sins (Clem.