Hygrophytes.Plants which are sub-evergreen or evergreen but it scierophyllous, and which live in moist soils; e.g., Lastraea lix-mas, Poa pratensis, Carex ovalis, Plantago lanceolala, and ihillaea Millefolium.
On the whole, it consists of local species of some widely distributed northern genera, such as Carex, Poa, Ranunculus, &c., with alpine types of strictly south temperate genera, characteristic of the separate localities.
During spring, autumn, and winter in particular, the blue-grass (Poa compressa and Poa pratensis) spreads a mat, green, thick, fine and soft, over much of the country, and it is a good winter pasture; about the middle of June it blooms, and, owing to the hue of its seed vessels, gives the landscape a bluish hue.
Of the best hay and pasture grasses, Agropyrum Elymus, Stipa, Bromus, Agrostis, Calamagrostes and Poa, there are 59 species.
The pili grass (Heteropogon contortus) is also noxious, for its awns get badly entangled in the wool of sheep. The native manienie (Stenotaphrum americanum) and kukai (Panicum pruriens), however, are relished by stock and are found on all the inhabited islands; the Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), a June grass (Poa annua), and Guinea grass (Panicum jumentorum) have also been successfully introduced.
18 lb Poa nemoralis sempervirens - Evergreen Meadow-grass.
3 ib Poa trivialis - Trivial Meadow-grass..
Sea-aster flourishes in the Wadden of Friesland and Groningen, the Dollart and the Zeeland estuaries, giving place nearer the shore to sandspurry (Spergularia), or sea-poa or floating meadow grass (Glyceria maritima), which grows up to the dikes, and affords pasture for cattle and sheep. Along the coast of Overysel and in the Biesbosch lake club-rush, or scirpus, is planted in considerable quantities for the hat-making industry, and common sea-wrack (Zostera marina) is found in large patches in the northern half of the Zuider Zee, where it is gathered for trade purposes during the months of June, July and August.
The last three forms grow only on the genera Aira, Agrostis and Poa respectively.
In the last-named family the single morphological species Erysiphe graminis is found growing on the cereals, barley, oat, wheat, rye and a number of wild grasses (such as Poa, Bromus, Dactylis).
- Leaf of a Fan Palm (Poa) with leaf.
Rice grows wild, and several kinds of Poa grass are used as food by the natives.
A few of the lower internodes may become enlarged and subglobular, forming nutriment-stores, and grasses so characterized are termed " bulbous " (Arrhenatherum, Poa bulbosa, &c.).
As a rule it is split down its whole length, thus differing from that of Cyperaceae which is almost invariably (Eriospora is an exception) a complete tube; in some grasses, however (species of Poa, Bromus and others), the edges are united.
1, Piptatherum, with the palea p; 2, Poa; 3, Oryza; 1, Lodicule.
Some species, such as Poa stricta, are known only in this viviparous condition; others, like our British species Festuca ovina, and Poa alpina, become viviparous under the special climatic. conditions.
The largest species of the genus is Poa flabellata which forms great tufts 6-7 ft.
- Poa annua.
Several species of the north temperate zone, such as Poa nemoralis, P. pratensis, Festuca ovina, F.