The Adige has a course of about 220 m., and, after the Po, is the most important river in Italy.
The principal rivers entering the Mediterranean directly are the Nile from Africa, and the Po, Rhone and Ebro from Europe.
VIVIANITE, a mineral consisting of hydrated iron phosphate Fe 3 (PO 4) 2 +8H 2 0, crystallizing in the monoclinic system.
RQ po/ a a country.
PARMA, a town and episcopal see of Emilia, Italy, capital of the province of Parma, situated on the Parma, a tributary of the Po, 55 m.
587 the river broke its banks, and the main stream took its present course, but new streams opened repeatedly to the south, until now the Adige and the Po form conjointly one delta.
In 387 Magnus Maximus, who had commanded a Roman army in Britain, and had in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) made himself master of the northern provinces, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.
By far the larger portion of Northern Italy is occupied by the basin of the Po, which comprises the whole of the broad plain extending from the foot of the Apennines to that of the Alps, together with the valleys and slopes on both sides of it.
In a direct line&mdsah;the Po receives all the waters that flow from the Apennines northwards, and all those that descend from the Alps towards the south, Mincio (the outlet of the Lake of Garda) inclusive.
Is the Adige, which, after pursuing a parallel course with the Po for a considerable distance, enters the Adriatic by a separate mouth.
It enters the plain at Saluzzo, between which and Turin, a distance of only 30 m., it receives three considerable tributaries—the Chisone on its left bank, bringing down the waters from the valley of Fenestrelle, and the Varaita and Maira on the south, contributing those of two valleys of the Alps immediately south of that of the Po itself.
More, joins the Po a few miles below Chivasso.
East of this confluence—in the course of which the Po makes a great bend south to Valenza, and then returns again to the northward—it is joined by the Ticino, a large and rapid river, which brings with it the outflow of Lago Maggiore and all the waters that flow into it.
The next great affluent of the Po, the Adda, forms the outflow of the Lake of Como, and has also its sources in the Alps, above Bormio, whence it flows through the broad and fertile valley of the Valtellina for more than 65 m.
Till it enters the Po between Piacenza and Cremona.
Issuing thence at its southwest extremity, the Oglio has a long and winding course through the plain before it finally reaches the Po a few miles above Borgoforte.
The Adige, formed by the junction of two streams—the Etsch or Adige proper and the Eisak, both of which belong to Tirol rather than to Italy—descends as far as Verona, where it enters the great plain, with a course from north to south nearly parallel to the rivers last described, and would seem likely to discharge its waters into those of the Po, but below Legnago it turns eastward and runs parallel to the Po for about 40 m., entering the Adriatic by an independent mouth about 8 m.
The Po itself, which is here a very large stream, with an average width of 400 to 600 yds., continues to flow with an undivided mass of waters as far as Sta Maria di Ariano, where it parts into two arms, known as the Po di Maestra and Po di Goro, and these again are subdivided into several other branches, forming a delta above 20 m.
West of Ferrara, where a small arm of the river, still called the Po di Ferrara, branches from the main stream.
Previous to the year 1154 this channel was the main stream, and the two small branches into which it subdivides, called the Po di Volano and Po di Primaro, were in early times the two main outlets of the river.
The southernmost of these, the Po di Primaro, enters the Adriatic about 12 m.
North of Ravenna, so that if these two arms be included, the delta of the Po extends about 36 m.
Besides the delta of the Po and the large marshy tracts which it forms, there exist on both sides of it extensive lagoons of salt water, generally separated from the Adriatic by narrow strips of sand or embankments, partly natural and partly artificial, but havin openings which admit the influx and efflux of the sea-water, and serve as ports for communication with the mainland.
The tract adjoining this long line of lagoons is, like the basin of the Po, a broad expanse of perfectly level alluvial plain, extending from the Adige eastwards to the Carnic Alps, where they approach close to the Adriatic between Aquileia and Trieste, and northwards to the foot of the great chain, which here sweeps round in a semicircle from the neighborhood of Vicenza to that of Aquileia.
Returning to the south of the Po, the tributaries of that river on its right bank below the Tanaro are very inferior in volume and importance to those from the north.
Of Genoa, flows by Bobbio, and joins the Po a few miles above Piacenza; (3) the Nure, a few miles east of the preceding; (4) the Taro, a more considerable stream; (5) the Parma, flowing by the city of the same name; (6) the Enza; (7) the Secchia, which flows by Modena; (8) the Panaro, a few miles to the east of that city; (9) the Reno, which flows by Bologna, but instead of holding its course till it discharges its waters into the Po, as it did in Roman times, is turned aside by an artificial channel into the Po di Primaro.
The other small streams east of this—of which the most considerable are the Solaro, the Santerno, flowing by Imola, the Lamone by Faenza, the Montone by ForlÃ¬, all in Roman times tributaries of the Po—have their outlet in like manner into the Po di Primaro, or by artificial mouths into the Adriatic between Ravenna and Rimini.
In width, between the crest of the Apennines and the plain of the Po, is one of the least known and at the same time least interesting portions of Italy.
The northern part of Tuscany is indeed occupied to a considerable extent by the underfalls and offshoots of the Apennines, which, besides the slopes and spurs of the main range that constitutes its northern frontier towards the plain of the Po, throw off several outlying ranges or groups.
The Tiber, a much more important river than the Arno, and the largest in Italy with the exception of the Po, rises in the Apennines, about 20 m.
The great extension of Italian coast-line is thought by some to be not really a source of strength to the Italian mercantile marine, as few of the ports have a large enough hinterland to provide them with traffic, and in this hinterland (except in the basin of the Po) there are no canals or navigable rivers.
The fortresses in the basin of the Po chiefly belong to the era of divided Italy and are now out of date; the chief coast fortresses are Vado, Genoa, Spezia, Monte Argentaro, Gacta, Straits of Messina, Taranto, Maddalena.
In March 1902 agrarian strikes organized by the leg/fe broke out in the district of Copparo and Polesine (lower valley of the Po), owing to a dispute about the labor contracts, and in Apulia on account of unemployment.
Between the Po hills and the British frontier.
Friendly relations are maintained with Spain, as the Spanish plantations in Fernando Po are to a great extent worked by Liberian labour.
In the latter case a court of cassation is provided in the district com mittee for the affairs of the peasants (Uyezdnoe po krestianskim dolam prisutstviye), which has superseded the assembly of arbiters of the peace (mirovye posredniki) established in 1866.3 (W.
Po o 8 I 3 3.5 I I.
From the Po-yang Lake.
The largest river is the Kan Kiang, which rises in the mountains in the south of the province and flows north-east to the Po-yang Lake.
Another river of note is the Chang Kiang, which has its source in the province of Ngan-hui and flows into the Po-yang Lake, connecting in its course the Wuyuen district, whence come the celebrated "Moyune" green teas, and the city of King-to-chen, celebrated for its pottery, with Jao-chow Fu on the lake.
Kiu-kiang, the treaty port of the province, opened to foreign trade in 1861, is on the Yangtsze-kiang, a short distance above the junction of the Po-yang Lake with that river.
Under the Lombards the town was the seat of dukes and counts; in the 12th and 13th centuries it formed a flourishing republic, busied in surrounding itself with walls (1229), controlling the Crostolo and constructing navigable canals to the Po, coining money of its own, and establishing prosperous schools.
Throughout the valley of the Po the Gauls took the place of the Etrurians as a conquering power; but Ravenna may possibly have retained its Umbrian character until, about the year 191 B.C., by the conquest of the Boii, the whole of this region passed definitely under the dominion of Rome.
At the same time Augustus conducted a branch of the Po (the fossa Augusta) through the city into the sea.
It is situated between the mouths of the Adige and the Po, about 13z m.
COUNT OF MONTFERRAT, a title derived from a territory south of the Po and east of Turin, and held by a family who were in the 12th century one of the most considerable in Lombardy.
From Sicily and even the Spanish coast to the Troad, southern Asia Minor, Cyprus and Palestine, - from the Nile valley to the mouth of the Po, very similar forms were now diffused.
This, with the exception of a brief tenure of Cremona (1499-1512), formed her permanent territory down to the fall of the republic. Her frontiers now ran from the seacoast near Monfalcone, following the line of the Carnic and Julian and Raetian Alps to the Adda, down the course of that river till it joins the Po, and thence along the line of the Po back to the sea.
The following families and genera are represented on the British coasts: Carinellidae, Cannella; Cephalothricidae, Cephalothrix, Carinoma; Eunemertidae, Eunemertes; Ototy Phlone Me Rtidae, Ototyphlonemertes; AM PHI PO Ridae, Amphiporus, Drepanophorus; TET Rastemmidae, Tetrastemma, Prosorhocmus; M Alacobdellidae, Malacobdella; Eu Poliidae, Eupolia, Valencinia, Oxypolia; Lineidae, Lineus, Euborlasia, Micrura, Cerebratulus, Micrella.
In January 1870 the first piece of real foreign missionary work was begun at Fernando Po, followed in December of the same year by the mission at Aliwal North on the Orange River in South Africa.
It was proposed that all the land north of the Padus (Po) lately in possession of the Cimbri, including that of the independent Celtic tribes which had been temporarily occupied by them, should be held available for distribution among the veterans of Marius.
Thus copper sulphate was CuO+S0 3, potassium sulphate 2S0 3 +P00 2 (the symbol Po for potassium was subsequently discarded in favour of K from kalium).
In the case of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, NaH 2 PO 4 H 2 O, a stable rhombic form is obtained from warm solutions, while a different, unstable, rhombic form is obtained from cold solutions.
More important are the rivers that descend from the main chain of the Graian and Pennine Alps and join the Po on its left bank.