By his recognition of an apparent plurality supplementary to the real unity, he effected the transition from the " monism " or " henism " of the first physical succession to the " pluralism " of the second.
The parochial clergy were probably in a healthier condition; but the old abuses of pluralism and non-residence were as rampant as ever, and though their work may have been in many cases honorably carried out, it is certain that energy and intelligence were at a low ebb.
The typical faults of the dark ages, pluralism, simony, lax observation of the clerical rules, contented ignorance, worldliness in every aspect, were all too prevalent in England.
Pluralism, nepotism, simony and all the other ancient abuses were more rampant than ever.
Yet from the points of view alike of an absolute pluralism, of a flux, and of a formula of bare identity - and a fortiori with any blending of these principles sufficiently within the bounds of plausibility to find an exponent - all knowledge, because all predication of unity, in difference, must be held to be impossible.
Diogenes (q.v.) began by insisting on the necessity of there being only one principle of things, herein contradicting the pluralism of Heraclitus.
The aim of knowledge is explanation, and the dualism or pluralism which acquiesces in recognizing two or more wholly disparate forms of reality has in so far renounced explanation.
All thought starts from the ordinary dualism or pluralism which conceives of the world as consisting of the juxtaposition of mutually independent things and persons.